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'A great effusion of blood' was a phrase used frequently throughout medieval Europe as shorthand to describe the effects of immoderate interpersonal violence. Yet the ambiguity of this phrase poses numerous problems for modern readers and scholars in interpreting violence in medieval society and culture and its effect on medieval people. Understanding medieval violence is made even more complex by the multiplicity of views that need to be reconciled: those of modern scholars regarding the psychology and comportment of medieval people, those of the medieval persons themselves as perpetrators or victims of violence, those of medieval writers describing the acts, and those of medieval readers, the audience for these accounts. Using historical records, artistic representation, and theoretical articulation, the contributors to this volume attempt to bring together these views and fashion a comprehensive understanding of medieval conceptions of violence.
Exploring the issue from both historical and literary perspectives, the contributors examine violence in a broad variety of genres, places, and times, such as the Late Antique lives of the martyrs, Islamic historiography, Anglo-Saxon poetry and Norse sagas, canon law and chronicles, English and Scottish ballads, the criminal records of fifteenth-century Spain, and more. Taken together, the essays offer fresh ways of analysing medieval violence and its representations, and bring us closer to an understanding of how it was experienced by the people who lived it.
‘A Justifiable Obsession’ traces the evolution of Ontario’s relationship with the federal government in the years following the Second World War. Through extensive archival research in both national and provincial sources, P.E. Bryden demonstrates that the province’s successive Conservative governments played a crucial role in framing the national agenda – although this central relationship has received little attention compared to those that have been more volatile. As such, Bryden’s study sheds light on an important but largely ignored chapter in Canadian political history.
Bryden focuses on the politicians and strategists who guided the province through the negotiation of intergovernmental economic, social, and constitutional issues, including tax policies, the design of the new social welfare net, and efforts to patriate the constitution. Written in a lucid, engaging style that captures the spirit of the politics of postwar Canada, ‘A Justifiable Obsession’ is a significant contribution to our understanding of Ontario’s politics and political culture.
'Being Alive Well': Health and the Politics of Cree Well-Being is a critical medical anthropological analysis of health theory in the social sciences with specific reference to the James Bay Cree of northern Quebec. In it the author argues that definitions of health are not simply reflections of physiological soundness but convey broader cultural and political realities. The book begins with a treatise on the study of health in the social sciences and a call for a broader understanding of the cultural parameters of any definition of health.
Following a chapter that outlines the history of the Whapmagoostui (Great Whale River) region and the people, Adelson presents the underlying symbolic foundations of a Cree concept of health, or miyupimaatisiiun. The core of this book is an ethnographic study of the Whapmagoostui Cree and their particular concept of health (miyupimaatisiiun or being alive well). That concept is mediated by history, cultural practices, and the contemporary world of the Cree, including their fundamental concerns about their land and culture. In the contemporary context, health – or more specifically, being alive well – for the Cree of Great Whale is an intimate fusion of social, political, and personal well-being, thus linking individual bodies to a larger socio-political reality.
Historically, the contributions of women architects to their profession have been minimized or overlooked. 'Designing Women' explores the tension that has existed between the architectural profession and its women members. It demonstrates the influence that these women have had on architecture in Canada, and links their so-called marginalization to the profession's restrictive and sometimes discriminatory practices.
Co-written by an architectural historian and a sociologist, this book provides a welcome blend of disciplinary approaches. The product of much original research, it looks at issues that are specific to architecture in Canada and at the same time characteristic of many male-dominated workplaces.
Annmarie Adams and Peta Tancred examine the issue of gender and its relation to the larger dynamics of status and power. They argue that many women architects have reacted with ingenuity to the difficulties they have faced, making major innovations in practice and design. Branching out into a wide range of alternative fields, these women have extended and developed what are considered to be the core specializations within architecture. As the authors point out, while the profession designs women's place within it, women design buildings and careers that transcend that narrow professional definition.
Far from being a measure of progress or humanitarian aid, Indian welfare policy in Canada was used deliberately to oppress and marginalize First Nations peoples and to foster their assimilation into the dominant society. 'Enough to Keep Them Alive' explores the history of the development and administration of social assistance policies on Indian reserves in Canada from confederation to the modern period, demonstrating a continuity of policy with roots in the pre-confederation practices of fur trading companies.
Extensive archival evidence from the Indian Affairs record group at the National Archives of Canada is supplemented for the post-World War Two era by interviews with some of the key federal players. More than just an historical narrative, the book presents a critical analysis with a clear theoretical focus drawing on colonial and post-colonial theory, social theory, and critiques of liberalism and liberal democracy.
George Herbert is best known as a seventeenth-century sacred poet, often associated with such writers as John Milton and John Donne, but it is Herbert's portrait of an idealized rural clergyman in The Country Parson which perhaps best shows Herbert's engagement in a wide range of complex social debates. In Full of all knowledg', Ronald Cooley examines the 1632 pastoral manual through four distinct lenses, each representing the perspective of a particular historical sub-specialty: church history, the history of the 'learned professions' (law and medicine), local and agricultural history, and the history of the patriarchal nuclear family.
Cooley argues that in Herbert's portrait of the clergyman who is 'full of all knowledge,' and who counsels parishioners on matters of faith, law, health, agriculture, and family obligation, Herbert engages with contemporary cultural and social ideals, and offers today's scholar a unique opportunity for synthetic literary-historical study. Through his investigation of The Country Parson and a selection of Herbert's later poems, Cooley shows how traditionalist rhetoric and appeals to customary wisdom facilitated innovative practices in agricultural, professional, social, and domestic affairs, and he provides new illumination of the mental and material world of the seventeenth century cleric and poet. In positioning George Herbert as a spokesman for a legal-rational social order, and in placing The Country Parson in its cultural milieu, Cooley reveals a new dimension to Herbert's work and provides a valuable tool for future study of Herbert and seventeenth-century culture and history.
In 1985 and 1986, ninety-year-old Witsuwit’en Chief, Maxlaxlex – or Johnny David as he is better known – was the first Witsuwit’en to give Commission Evidence in the Delgamuukw land claims case in which the Witsuwit’en and Gitxsan of Northern British Columbia were battling for title to their traditional territories.
‘Hang Onto These Words’ presents the actual transcripts of the questions and answers between lawyers working on both sides and this knowledgeable and outspoken Native elder who spoke in his own language and whose words were then translated by an interpreter into English. The evidence was given in a makeshift courtroom set up in David’s own home. Anthropologist Antonia Mills was present during these proceedings, and in this book, she introduces and contextualizes the evidence within the Delgamuukw case.
In his testimony, David provides a rich description of the Witsuwit’en way of life as well as the injustices suffered at the hands of Indian agents and settlers. He ends his testimony saying, “If you hang on to these words, everything will be all right.” The challenge of hearing his voice, and using it to negotiate the meaning and substance of Aboriginal rights remains unresolved and resonant.
For whom was the Hebrew Bible written? How much truth does it contain? What, according to the Bible, is the place of men and women in the world? What connection is there between the Bible and morality? In I AM Mark Glouberman supplies new answers to these old questions. He does this by establishing that the foundational scripture of the West is, first and foremost, a philosophical document, not a theological tract, nor yet the religious history of a nation.
The author identifies the Bible’s fundamental principle, the ontological principle of particularity. This principle, he shows, is what makes the Bible the revolutionary text that it is. God’s I AM WHO I AM asserts the principle, of which the Bible’s deity is a personified form. God’s self-identification also points to the real, anthropological, meaning of the ism called monotheism. A portion of Glouberman’s book is devoted to illustrating the Bible’s live relevance in many of the areas where modern philosophers congregate, including moral philosophy, political philosophy, metaphysics, and epistemology.
Isn’t it a bit late in the day for the Bible’s meaning to be revealed? Glouberman says that it’s about time.
In sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain, debating the acceptability of games and recreation was serious business. With Lector Ludens, Michael Scham uses Cervantes’s Don Quijote and Novelas ejemplares as the basis for a wide-ranging exploration of early modern Spanish views on recreations ranging from cards and dice to hunting, attending the theater, and reading fiction.
Shifting fluidly between modern theories of play, little-known Spanish treatises on leisure and games, and the evidence in Cervantes’s own works, Scham illuminates Cervantes’s intense fascination with games, play, and leisure, as well as the tensions in early modern Spain between the stern moralizing of the Counter-Reformation and the playfulness of Renaissance humanism.
The Italian neoavanguardia, a literary and artistic movement characterized by a strong push towards experimentation, playfulness, and new forms of language usage, was founded at the beginning of the 1960s by a group of poets, critics, artists, and composers. Although the neoavanguardia movement has been primarily defined and examined in a literary context, it is broadly discussed in this collection as also affecting other artistic forms such as the visual arts, music, and architecture.
In examining this often controversial movement, Neoavanguardia's contributors include topics such as critical-theoretical debates, the crisis of literature as defined within the movement, and issues of gender in 1960s Italian art and literature. This important collection interrogates the arts as creative codes, their ability to question reality, and their capacity to survive. In so doing, it paves the way for future interdisciplinary investigations of this complex cultural formation.
The mass production and dissemination of printed materials were unparalleled in England during the 1640s and 50s. While theatrical performance traditionally defined literary culture, print steadily gained ground, becoming more prevalent and enabling the formation of various networks of writers, readers, and consumers of books.
In conjunction with an evolving print culture, seventeenth-century England experienced a rise of political instability and religious dissent, the closing of the theatres, and the emergence of a middle class. Elizabeth Sauer examines how this played out in the nation’s book and print industry with an emphasis on performative writings, their materiality, reception, and their extra-judicial function.'Paper-contestations' and Textual Communities in England challenges traditional readings of literary history, offers new insights into drama and its transgression of boundaries, and proposes a fresh approach to the politics of consensus and contestation that animated seventeenth-century culture and that distinguishes current scholarly debates about this period.
This is the history of the foundations of modern carceral institutions in Ontario. Drawing on a wide range of previously unexplored primary material – including the papers of prison inspectors and officials and the correspondence of those who wrote to the authorities – Peter Oliver provides a narrative and interpretative account of the penal system in nineteenth-century Ontario.
In a century of massive social change, the penal system remained rural, local, decentralized, and resistant to transformations that were affecting other areas of society. Despite the efforts of reformers, neither the political elites nor Ontarians in general paid much attention to the inadequacies of a system plagued by neglect, penny-pinching, and the vagaries of local control. In the 1830s, the Kingston penitentiary and punishment by incarceration became the cornerstones of the system, and these elements, however flawed, dominated the Ontario correctional system until the late twentieth century.
'Terror to Evil-Doers' focuses on the purposes and internal management of particular institutions. By synthesizing a wealth of new material into a comprehensive framework, Oliver's seminal study lays the groundwork for future students and scholars of Canadian history, criminology, and sociology.
The Criminal Crowd and Other Writings on Mass Society is the first English collection of writings by Italian jurist, sociologist, cultural and literary critic Scipio Sighele. Sighele is largely responsible for providing post-unification Italy with a new outlook on issues ranging from the blurring line between individual and collective accountability, the role of urbanization in the development of criminality, and the emancipation of women.
This work draws a multifaceted portrait of a provocative thinker and public intellectual caught between tradition and modernity during the European fin de siècle. Containing a comprehensive introduction by the editor, The Criminal Crowd and Other Writings on Mass Society includes Sighele’s seminal work, The Criminal Crowd, as well as his formative studies on group behaviour. Nicoletta Pireddu contextualizes Sighele’s contribution to the so-called ‘age-of crowds,’ from the fierce polemic with his French rivals Gustave LeBon and Gabriel Tarde to the scientific, literary, and cultural developments of his conceptualization of mass behaviours as a legitimate object of psychological investigation into a new century.
Nineteenth-century Canada experienced two other revolutions apart from those of W.L. Mackenzie and Louis Riel: the transition to capitalism, and to responsible government. Union Is Strength argues that these major socio-political changes happened in Ontario without a revolutionary moment because of the intertwined relationship of reformers with capitalists. Examining a small, utopian socialist group named the Children of Peace, Albert Schrauwers traces the emergence of a vibrant democratic culture in the province from the decade before the Rebellions of 1837.
Schrauwers shows how the overlapping boards of unincorporated joint stock companies managed by both Toronto reformers and the Children of Peace produced a culture of deliberative democracy in competition with the gentlemanly capitalism of chartered corporations. Noting the ways in which Ontario's capitalist and democratic revolutions were linked through cooperative joint stock operations, he also situates these revolutions in an international context and links them to the development of Owenite socialism and Chartism in the United Kingdom. Union Is Strength is an insightful study of both nineteenth century Canada and the ways in which regional political cultures arise.
Detailing the history of the aboriginal village of Iskut, British Columbia over the past 100 years, ‘We Are Still Didene’ examines the community's transition from subsistence hunting to wage work in trapping, guiding, construction, and service jobs.
Using naturally occurring, extended transcripts of stories told by the group's hunters, Thomas McIlwraith explores how Iskut hunting culture and the memories that the Iskut share have been maintained orally.
McIlwraith demonstrates the ways in which these stories challenge the idealized images of Aboriginals that underlie state-sponsored traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) studies. McIlwraith instead illuminates how these narratives are connected to the Iskut Village's complex relationships with resource extraction companies and the province of British Columbia, as well as their interactions with animals and the environment.
Embraced with zeal by a wide array of activists and policymakers, the restorative justice movement has made promises to reduce the disproportionate rates of Aboriginal involvement in crime and the criminal justice system and to offer a healing model suitable to Aboriginal communities. Such promises should be the focus of considerable critical analysis and evaluation, yet this kind of scrutiny has largely been absent. 'Will the Circle be Unbroken?' explores and confronts the potential and pitfalls of restorative justice, offering a much-needed critical perspective.
Drawing on their shared experiences working with Aboriginal communities, Jane Dickson-Gilmore and Carol LaPrairie examine the outcomes of restorative justice projects, paying special attention to such prominent programs as conferencing, sentencing circles, and healing circles. They also look to Aboriginal justice reforms in other countries, comparing and contrasting Canadian reforms with the restorative efforts in New Zealand, Australia, and the United States.
'Will the Circle be Unbroken?' provides a comprehensive overview of the critical issues in Aboriginal and restorative justice, placing these in the context of community. It examines the essential role of community in furthering both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal aspirations for restorative justice.
'You're so fat!' was the greeting extended to the author's wife on her return to the Algonquin community of Pikogan in northwestern Quebec. The Anishnaabe elder was in fact complimenting her for looking robust and healthy.
Non-Natives have much to learn in order to understand Native experience and culture. Spielmann sets out to show how one might use the techniques of conversation analysis and discourse analysis to accomplish this. Ultimately, he seeks to capture the essence of Native experience by exploring how Native people talk about that experience, an approach that is missing from existing books about Aboriginal people
You're So Fat! will be of interest to linguists, anthropologists, sociologists and others interested in exploring issues in conversation analysis, ethnography, and Native studies.
Ideas regarding the role of the museum have become increasingly contentious. In the last fifteen years, scholars have pointed to ways in which states (especially imperialist states) use museums to showcase looted artefacts, to document their geographic expansion, to present themselves as the guardians of national treasure, and to educate citizens and subjects. At the same time, a great deal of attention has been paid to reshaping national histories and values in the wake of the collapse of the Communist bloc and the emergence of the European Union. (Re)Visualizing National History considers the wave of monument and museum building in Europe as part of an attempt to forge consensus in politically unified but deeply divided nations.
This collection explores ways in which museums exhibit emerging national values and how the establishment of these new museums (and new exhibits in older museums) reflects the search for a consensus among different generational groups in Europe and North America. The contributors come from a variety of countries and academic backgrounds, and speak from such varied perspectives as cultural studies, history, anthropology, sociology, and museum studies. (Re)Visualizing National History is a unique and interdisciplinary volume that offers insights on the dilemmas of present-day European culture, manifestations of nationalism in Europe, and the debates surrounding museums as sites for the representation of politics and history.
Robertson Davies (1913–1995), one of Canada’s most distinguished authors of the twentieth century, was known for his work as a novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor. This descriptive bibliography is dedicated to his writing career, covering all publications from his first venture into print at the age of nine to works published posthumously to 2011. Entries include each of Davies’ signed publications and those pseudonymous or anonymous writings he acknowledged having written. Included are his plays, novels, journalism, academic writing, translations, interviews, speeches, lectures, unsigned articles and editorials, films, audio recordings, and multimedia editions. Also listed is a generous sampling of unsigned articles and editorials.
Using Davies’ archives and the archives of other authors, organizations, and publishers, Carl Spadoni and Judith Skelton Grant present A Bibliography of Robertson Davies to serve the research demands of Canadian literature and book history scholars.
Marie Tremaine's bibliography was originally published by University of Toronto press in 1952 and has been described as 'the cornerstone of bibliography and book history studeis in Canada.' This supplement corrects the original books and adds considerably to its contents. In addition to verifying as many of Tremaine's original library locations as possible, and identifying additional copies of the items, the authors have added the many new entries that have come to light in the last forty-five years
The new work is an analytical bibliography of previously unrecorded eighteenth-century Canadian imprints and a source for the study of early print culture in the Maritimes, Quebec, and Ontario. The definition of imprint has been extended to encompass all products of the press, from books and official documents to job printing such as handbills, commercial notices, licences, and land grants. The work includes a transcription of the accountsof more than thirty years of book and job printing from the Brown Neilson office in Quebec City, the most extensive collection of business records left by an early Canadian print shop.