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The field of ecological economics emerged roughly two decades ago, and is rapidly growing both as a scientific endeavor and as a major guide to policy development.� Since its founding in 1989, the journal Ecological Economics has published 70 volumes containing approximately 3,000 articles.� Articles on ecological economics issues routinely appear in numerous other journals as well, including Science and Nature.�
Clearly, such interest indicates a maturing of the field.� It is time for a publication providing reviews of key issues and subjects in a comprehensive, relevant, and timely fashion, creating a critical point of access to the field of ecological economics, and an opportunity to reflect on past progress and chart the direction forward.
After two years of publishing Ecological Economics Reviews (EER) as a special issue of the 'Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences', we are pleased to announce a move to Springer and a slightly different name: Reviews in Ecological Economics (REE). We are confident that this move will strengthen the new REE and increase our exposure and recognition.�
Written by leading scientists and with a prominent transdisciplinary editorial board (listed below), this intelligent and up-to-date synthesis of the primary research will be an oft-cited benchmark in the field.
Bernardo Aguilar, Paula Antunes, Ruchi Badola, James Boyd, Cutler Cleveland, Rudolf de Groot, Lisa Deutsch, Jon Erickson, David Ervin, Stephen Farber, Joshua Farley, Carl Folke, Iris Goodman, John Gowdy, Charles Hall, Richard Howarth, Tim Jackson, Felix Mueller, Sabine O'Hara, David Orr, Charles Perrings, Irene Petrosillo, Steve Polasky, Eva Roth, Juliet Schor, Kerry Turner, Peter Victor, Mike Young�
The main aim of Renewable Energies is to provide an overview of the environmental impact of the different renewable energy systems, enabling readers to understand the environmental impact of electricity production, through the analysis of different generation sources over their life cycle. This means the book covers the real impact of each source of electrical generation from the extraction of materials to permit completion of the installation (solar panels, wind turbines, etc.), until finally (once the productive lifespan of the facility is over) it is dismantled and its components are sent to a landfill, recycled, reused, etc. This analysis uses the technique of life cycle assessment (LCA), allows the authors to obtain graphically and numerically the different impacts associated with each facility. It permits comparison of the different systems studied, showing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of each one of these systems. Furthermore, these systems of power generation from renewable sources can be compared to traditional systems of electrical power (fossil fuels, hydraulic, nuclear) giving a fairer evaluation, in terms of financial and environmental cost, of each one of these systems.
We all want more information in order to make better decisions and calculate risk, but oftentimes that information is scarce. This new strategy, based on extensive cognitive and economic research, shows how to make financial decisions through a 'fast and frugal' method.
This book considers the derivative action, an important corporate governance tool which is commonly considered to serve two basic functions, i.e., enabling shareholders to gain redress for a wrong done to their company and deterring potential breaches of directors? fiduciary duties. This book critically examines the derivative action from theoretical, evolutionary, and comparative perspectives. It considers how controversial issues such as locus standi, demand requirements, indemnity cost orders, information asymmetry and res judicata are approached in selected civil law countries as well as throughout the Commonwealth. The book also assesses whether derivative litigation could fulfill a similar role in China, which is one of the most rapidly developing economies in the world, yet lacks adequate corporate governance mechanisms. The ultimate aim discussed in the book is how to establish a remedial mechanism which makes derivative actions more accessible and consistent, while maintaining the balance between corporate efficiency and protecting minority shareholders? interests. Lastly, based on different approaches in the latest reforming infrastructure, it explores whether there is a general converging trend for derivative actions between the two major legal systems.
This Encyclopaedia provides a cutting-edge, up-to-date reference source on mineral and energy policies around the world. It offers information on GDP, population, investment scenarios and current environmental regulations in over one hundred countries from 13 geographic regions around the world. It covers topics such as geo-conservation, raw material recycling and mining technology as well as rare earth, green technology and international organizations that are actively involved in minerals and energy through exploration, arbitration, marketing and investment. Topical entries are presented alphabetically with extensive cross-referencing to ensure user-friendly reading. This Encyclopaedia presents the work of more than 20 section editors and more than 100 international experts in the fields of mineral and energy policies. It is designed as a essential resource for researchers, students, libraries, industry, governments, and international organizations and presents a wealth of insights and guidance for corporate planning regarding exploration and financial investments, as well as for venture capitalist and international funding bodies. As such, it provides an indispensable point of reference for future research on mineral and energy policy.
Das vorliegende Werk ist in zwei Teile gegliedert: Der erste Teil betrachtet die Grundlagen des Industrial Engineering, wie den Produktentstehungs- und Auftragsabwicklungsprozess, das Arbeits- und Produktionssystem sowie Wertstr�me als Mittelpunkt des Industrial Engineering. Des Weiteren werden die Querschnittsfunktionen Zeitwirtschaft, Arbeitswissenschaft, Produktionssystemmodellierung, Data Mining und Digitale Fabrik erl�utert. Im zweiten Teil wird eine Systematik zur wertstromorientierten Analyse und Gestaltung von Produktionssystemen behandelt. Diese f�hrt die Elemente der Fertigungs- und Montagesystemgestaltung und der auf einen Idealzustand gerichteten Umsetzung zusammen.
This book provides an in-depth legal examination of limited partnership in the context of China?s venture capital and private equity market. It aims to provide an authoritative and timely evaluation of the Chinese partnership law and limited partnership regime and will be a valuable tool for practitioners who need a readily available source of information on Chinese partnership law and those who wish to understand how the Chinese partnership regime operates and functions. The book explains the essential characteristics of Chinese partnership law and Chinese limited partnership, highlighting difficult and developing areas by examining relevant legislation and recent cases. In addition to Chinese authorities, it also covers legislation and cases from overseas jurisdictions, such as the UK and the US. New developments such as the amendments to the PRC Partnership Enterprise Law 2007, new legislation and regulations on foreign partnerships and private equity funds are also covered. The book explains the essential areas of Chinese limited partnership such as management and control, duties and liabilities of partners, remedies for limited partners, dissolution, liquidation and taxation. Based on thorough comparative and empirical studies, the book examines existing and potential legal problems under the current law and offers key proposals for practitioners and lawmakers. The empirical problems identified in the book may also guide subsequent discussion and legislation on the limited partnership model and the ongoing debate on new business vehicles. ?
This book compares the impacts of religious reforms on the pattern of economic behavior and economic growth in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Japan with that during the early-modern period in England. In both countries the reforms raised the value of ordinary life in the secular world as a place for religious practices. In England the religious reform in the form of the introduction of Protestantism gave rise to the capitalistic work ethic and ethos to contribute to the public welfare in order to enhance the glory of God. This, together with the influence of the philosophy of empiricism, which emphasizes cognition based on individual experience, resulted in individualism and weak concerns about others nearby in secular activities. This attitude is closely related to the emergence of the mass production system in the form of supplying consumption goods to a public composed of people with invisible faces. In Japan, reform took the shape of the easing of religious training in Buddhism and this raised the value of the secular world as the place for religious practice, inducing people to be involved in the pursuit of religious truth in daily occupational lives (kyudo-shugi). The attainment of kyudo-shugi was evaluated by others nearby, so that there emerged production activities closely related to customers who took the role of evaluating the fruits of kyudo-shugi. The English system of mass production is supply-leading in the sense of being governed by the concern about the public welfare by supplies and the Japanese system demand-leading in the sense of close consideration for the satisfaction of individual customers. Through contrasting the experience of the two countries, this book emphasizes the diversity of historical growth models in various countries and rejects single-path theories such as naive modernization theory, a proto-industrialization model, or the Great Divergence hypothesis.
The purpose of this book is to discuss the relationship between information and distribution, with special reference to the role of the merchant in a market economy under conditions of risk and uncertainty. By working with simple models of the market economy and conducting a sequence of comparative analyses, the authors shed new light on an important yet rather neglected area in economics.
In a historical perspective, the merchants of Ohmi, the former name of Shiga Prefecture in western Japan, are known to have put great faith in the principles of�Sampo Yoshi�or the all-around advantages of trading. It is hoped that the results presented in this book will provide some solid ground for such an old principle that can be seen in a new light. Applications to regional and many related problems are also discussed here.A distribution system is broadly defined as the systematic mechanisms and structures that regulate business operations, and its function is to maximize corporate value. Some of the following functions have previously been identified as distinguishing features of the Japanese distribution system compared with distribution systems in Europe and the United States: not only transactions, transportation, and storage, but also information, risk-bearing functions, and other characteristics. This book provides an overview of the distribution system in Japan, including changes that its practice have undergone and its current state; identifies current problems; and considers how these problems should be addressed.
When the organisation is seen as a system, what is being optimized for the organisational system to be viable? Starting from this seemingly na�ve question, this book is unique, both academically and practically. First, it analyses and presents organisational changes within a unified framework of phase transition. Drawing upon a rich pool of diverse disciplines such as physics, material sciences, biology, geography, philosophy of science, and theories of organisation and management, organisational change is conceived as a process of optimizing or achieving efficiency in allocation of information-processing load within the system. A resulting model of alternating phases of evolutions and revolutions as required by the interaction between the organisation?s internal and external conditions is dogma-free in that the change by itself is no better nor more desirable than the stable state. Second, as the book?s model not only describes the mechanism of the organisational phase transition between evolutions and revolutions but also predicts when those switches are likely, from its discussion a comprehensive guideline for organisational management is derived, encompassing both phases of the organisational evolution and revolution.�Third, based on the unified model of organisational change, a new role of leadership is presented in the context of the organisation as an artificial system. Here, the ideal leader is not simply a guardian of the established, stable state nor is it an initiator of constant changes but, rather, is a steward or pastor who identifies the need for phase switch based on observation. The leader then facilitates the switching process between the organisational evolution and revolution as required, moving the organisation towards optimal viability.�Combining rigorous theoretical reasoning with practical insights, this book is an ideal companion for both researchers and practitioners of organisational management in today?s rapidly changing world.
Characteristics of Japanese visual narratives are depicted in this book, shedding light on cultural, institutional, and industrial aspects of reproducible contents. The book consists of three parts which deal with the Japanese contents industry, the hypervariety industry revolution, and related case studies, respectively. The first part proposes points of view for organizing research on the Japanese contents industry. The authors explain characteristics of the industry from the standpoint of cultural, institutional, and industrial strata. The second part explains the system of revolution in the industry as a hypervariety industry. The Japanese contents industry implicitly predicts the next innovation system, which will be hypervarietal but not top-down or Hollywood style as in the Western economy. The third part provides case studies on phenomena such as the comics market, Akihabara: a cross-cultural town, Cool Japan, and animation.
This book reports what progress is being and should be made in marketing science by social complexity science through such means as agent-based modeling and complex networks, which is seldom addressed by books reviewing the state of the art of marketing research or marketing science. Recently, as the penetration of brand-new communication technologies such as social media or mobile phones is connecting consumers more tightly than ever, marketers should understand and harness complex social interactions between consumers as well as between consumers and firms. Traditional marketing science does not sufficiently capture such phenomena; hence, the emerging alternative approaches are reflecting advances in social complexity science. The aim of this book is to give an overview of these newly emerging research trends, focusing mainly on the following three topics: diffusion of new products, choice and relationship with existing brands and marketing communication including consumers? word-of-mouth. These topics have attracted a lot of attention among marketers in particular in rapidly growing markets such as hi-tech or services, where consumers? mutual interaction and their bounded-rational behavior play critical roles. The prospective readers of this book include researchers, graduate students and practitioners with high expertise (e.g. data scientists) in both marketing/consumer research areas and complexity science areas such as computer science, physics and mathematical social science. The book serves as a bridge by providing the evolving knowledge on social complexity modeling for marketing researchers and the accumulated knowledge on marketing/consumer research for complexity researchers. In addition to reviewing previous and ongoing studies, this book offers the agenda for future researchers to discuss what problems have not been solved yet and need social complexity science approaches.
?This book shows that agglomeration economies and the geography of the supply chain are particularly important for the Japanese manufacturing industry in Japan and East Asia. For that industry, the author estimated the flexible translog production function using four-digit SIC industry panel data and panel data of the indices of Ellison and Glaeser (1997) agglomeration with the same industry and coagglomeration with different industry groups for 1985?2010. From the estimated results, it was found that there are positive impacts of agglomeration economies on production, especially the externality coagglomeration effect and very slight increasing returns to scale in the Japanese manufacturing industry. Especially, externality as a coagglomeration effect was shown to contribute to production in Japan?s manufacturing over the period that was examined.�Next, the estimation of the location for Japanese industry foreign direct investment (FDI) for 1985?2010 in East Asia using the new economic geography (NEG) model was shown. From these results of estimation of location factors, it was found that the agglomeration economies, market potential and supplier access are particularly important in the location choice of the Japanese manufacturing industry in East Asia.�Finally, certain policy implications were obtained from these studies. For the Japanese manufacturing industry, including a large number of global firms, it is important that there are agglomeration economies such as agglomeration with the same industry and coagglomeration with different industry groups in the same region. How to construct such industry agglomerations is an important policy challenge. In other words, innovation is promoted by these horizontal and vertical agglomerations, and construction of a production pyramid with an efficient production linkage?that is, the construction of new, efficient industrial clusters?is an important policy issue.