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India has a long and vibrant historical past, spanning from the Lower Pleistocene to modern times and the entire subcontinent is highly varied in its ecology, cultures, and traditions. The people of India include diverse tribal communities, nomadic and semi-nomadic groups, as well as historically-established caste-based populations. As a result, the region provides archaeologists with ample opportunities to conduct anthropological and archaeological research on living traditions as well as on past material cultures.
This manual, part of the WAC Cultural Heritage Manual series, represents a source of reference for those interested in pursuing professional archaeological research in India. This book provides readers with basic information of archaeological research in India, such as:
- General Indian geography
- A brief history of archaeological research and development of field methods
- The diversity of the Indian archaeological record
- The scope of ethnoarchaeology on various cultural groups
- Important governing bodies and legislative practices
- Cultural norms and ethics for archaeologists
as well as practical knowledge - relevant organizations for advice and collaboration, obtaining an official field permit and research visa, understanding unique fieldwork methods in Indian cultural and ecological contexts, and managing cultural heritage and research data.
This first-of -its-kind manual for the Indian subcontinent will be indispensable to anyone working in the archaeology of the region.
Dana Jalobeanu University of Bucharest, Romania
Charles T. Wolfe Ghent University, Belgium
Delphine Bellis University Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Zvi Biener University of Cincinnati, OH, USA
Angus Gowland University College London, UK
Ruth Hagengruber University of Paderborn, Germany
Hiro Hirai Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Martin Lenz University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Gideon Manning CalTech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Silvia Manzo University of La Plata, Argentina
Enrico Pasini University of Turin, Italy
Cesare Pastorino TU Berlin, Germany
Lucian Petrescu Universit� Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Justin E. H. Smith University de Paris Diderot, France
Marius Stan Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA
Koen Vermeir CNRS-SPHERE + Universit� de Paris, France
Kirsten Walsh University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
This book compares the impacts of religious reforms on the pattern of economic behavior and economic growth in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Japan with that during the early-modern period in England. In both countries the reforms raised the value of ordinary life in the secular world as a place for religious practices. In England the religious reform in the form of the introduction of Protestantism gave rise to the capitalistic work ethic and ethos to contribute to the public welfare in order to enhance the glory of God. This, together with the influence of the philosophy of empiricism, which emphasizes cognition based on individual experience, resulted in individualism and weak concerns about others nearby in secular activities. This attitude is closely related to the emergence of the mass production system in the form of supplying consumption goods to a public composed of people with invisible faces. In Japan, reform took the shape of the easing of religious training in Buddhism and this raised the value of the secular world as the place for religious practice, inducing people to be involved in the pursuit of religious truth in daily occupational lives (kyudo-shugi). The attainment of kyudo-shugi was evaluated by others nearby, so that there emerged production activities closely related to customers who took the role of evaluating the fruits of kyudo-shugi. The English system of mass production is supply-leading in the sense of being governed by the concern about the public welfare by supplies and the Japanese system demand-leading in the sense of close consideration for the satisfaction of individual customers. Through contrasting the experience of the two countries, this book emphasizes the diversity of historical growth models in various countries and rejects single-path theories such as naive modernization theory, a proto-industrialization model, or the Great Divergence hypothesis.
?Unraveling the Voynich Codex? reviews the historical, botanical, zoological, and iconographic evidence related to the Voynich Codex, one of the most valuable historic texts of the 16th century.
The Voynich Codex is one the most fascinating and bizarre manuscripts in the world. It was discovered in an Italian Catholic college (Villa Madragone) in 1912 by a book dealer Wilfrid Voynich. It was eventually bequeathed to the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library of Yale University. The parchment or vellum has been carbon dated to the early 15th century, but the writing is most likely a palimpsest (a manuscript written on scraped parchment or vellum) and thus newer. The codex, consists of many foldout pages, has been divided by previous researchers into sections known as: Herbal/Botanical/ Pharmacology (consisting of 309 images plants or plant parts); Balenological/Biological; Cosmology and a final Recipe section consisting of text that may be proscriptions or poetry. All the sections contain text. Cryptological analyses by modern computer programs have recently determined that the language is real and not a hoax, as has been suggested by some.
Despite the fact that this codex is largely an herbal, the interpreters of this manuscript with two exceptions, have not been botanists. The two botanists who have published papers in refereed journals (Rev. Hugh O?Neil, 1944 and Arthur O. Tucker, 2013) have observed the presence of only New World plants. Tucker has demonstrated that this is a MesoAmerican codex based on identification of plants, animals, a mineral, language symbols, and heliocentrism. Subsequent analysis by Tucker and Jules Janick have demonstrated connections to colonial Mexican history including illustrations and names of various cities and allusion to the establishment in 1530 of the Celestial City of Jerusalem (Puebla de los Angeles) by the Franciscan friar Toribio of Benvente known as Motolin�a (1482?1568). All our research to date indicates that the Voynich is a 16th century codex associated with indigenous Indians of Nueva Espa�a educated in schools established by the Spanish. This is a breakthrough in Voynich studies. We are convinced that the Voynich codex is a document produced by Aztec descendants that has been unfiltered through Spanish editors. Furthermore, we believe the failure to decipher the manuscript has been hampered by a misrepresentation of its origin in time and place. We have written essays on various parts of the manuscript and we believe these essays can form the basis of a book that would be of interests to Voynich enthusiasts and scholars, historians of Colonial Mexico, linguists, and cryptologists.
This book, based on the theory of Marxism-Leninism, aims to study the essence, content and features of various legal systems in China in different historical periods, as well as the rules of the development of Chinese legal systems. It effectively combines classic analysis and historical analysis to probe historical facts and elaborate the historical role of the legal system, revealing both the general and the specific rules of the development of China s legal system on the basis of the existing relevant research. The subject matter is of abundant theoretical and practical significance, as it enriches Marxist legal studies, deepens readers? understanding of China s legal civilization and offers guiding principles for the creation of socialist legal systems with Chinese characteristics. It discusses the trends in thinking on the reconstruction of the legal system; changing laws; western legal culture; the legal system in the period of westernization, constitution and reform; preparation for constitutionalism; modification of the law during the late Qing Dynasty; criminal, civil and commercial legislation; and judicial reforms in the modern era as well as the various ups and downs and cases of malconduct after the founding of the People?s Republic of China
The book provides an overview of the floods and major hydrological changes that occurred in the medieval Hungarian kingdom (covering the majority of the Carpathian Basin) between 1000 and 1500 AD. The analysis was based on contemporary documentary evidence presented for the first time and the results of archaeological and scientific investigations. Beyond the evidence on individual flood events, the book includes a comprehensive overview of short-, medium-, and long-term changes detected in a hydrologically sensitive environment during the transition period between the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. It also discusses the possible causes (including climate and human intervention) and the consequences for the physical and human environment, namely the related hydro-morphological changes, short- and long-term social response, and human perception issues.
This book investigates architectural and urban dimensions of the ethnic-nationalist conflict in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, during and after the siege of 1992-1995. Focusing on the wartime destruction of a portion of the cityscape in central Sarajevo, and its post-war reconstruction, re-inscription and memorialization, the book reveals how such spatial transformations become complicit in the struggle for reconfiguration of the city?s territory, boundaries and place identity. Drawing on original research, the study highlights the capacities of architecture and urban space to mediate terror, violence and resistance, deal with heritage of the war and act a catalyst for ethnic segregation or reconciliation. Based on a multi-disciplinary methodological approach grounded in architectural and urban theory, spatial turn in critical social theory, and assemblage thinking, the book provides an innovative spatial framework for analyzing the political role of contemporary cities.
This book examines the ways in which a minority of primarily white, male, French philanthropists used their social standing and talents to improve the lives of peoples of African descent in Saint-Domingue during the crucial period of the Haitian Revolution. They went to great lengths to advocate for the application of universal human rights through political activities, academic societies, religious charity, influence on public opinion, and fraternity in the armed services. The motives for their benevolence ran the gamut from genuine altruism to the selfish pursuit of prestige, which could, on occasion, lead to political or economic benefit from aiding blacks and people of color. This book offers a view that takes into account the efforts of all peoples who worked to end slavery and establish racial equality in Saint-Domingue and challenges simplistic notions of the Haitian Revolution, which lean too heavily on an assumed strict racial divide between black and white.
This book is the first comprehensive account of the rules and practices?the microstructure?of the Dojima Security Exchange (DSE), the world?s first futures market. Despite worldwide interest in the DSE and its relevance to modern financial markets, it is only briefly touched upon as the earliest example of a futures market in most of the existing literature in English. �Until the publication of this book, there has been no comprehensive account in English of the rules and practices of the DSE.
The DSE emerged in Osaka, Japan, around the turn of the eighteenth century. In Tokugawa Japan (1603?1867), the shogunate and local lords levied taxes in rice and exchanged rice for currency in rice markets to finance their expenditures.Osaka had the biggest rice market in Japan throughout the Tokugawa period, and most local lords stored rice in their own warehouses in Osaka, selling rice at auctions. Successful bidders received ?rice certificates? instead of rice itself, and each rice certificate could be exchanged for a pre-specified quantity of rice any time before its expiration at the issuer?s warehouse. These certificates and the futures contracts based on them were actively traded in a market located in Dojima, an area in Osaka. This market was officially approved by the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1730 as the Dojima Rice Exchange. Despite its official name, no rice was actually traded in this market. This historical fact is emphasized by referring to it as the ?Dojima Security Exchange? (DSE) in the proposed book.�
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In tenth-century Europe and particularly in Germany, imperial women were able to wield power in ways that were scarcely imaginable in earlier centuries. Theophanu and Adelheid were two of the most influential figures in the Ottonian reich along with their husbands, who relied heavily on their support. Phyllis G. Jestice examines an array of factors that produced their power and prestige, including societal attitudes toward women, their wealth, their unction as queens, and their carefully constructed image of piety. Due to their influential positions, Theophanu and Adelheid reclaimed control of the young Otto III despite fierce opposition from Henry the Quarrelsome during the throne struggle of 984. In examining how they successfully secured the regency, this book confronts the outmoded notion of exceptionalism and illuminates the lives of powerful Ottonian women.