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The field of human information behavior runs the gamut of processes from the realization of a need or gap in understanding, to the search for information from one or more sources to fill that gap, to the use of that information to complete a task at hand or to satisfy a curiosity, as well as other behaviors such as avoiding information or finding information serendipitously. Designers of mechanisms, tools, and computer-based systems to facilitate this seeking and search process often lack a full knowledge of the context surrounding the search. This context may vary depending on the job or role of the person; individual characteristics such as personality, domain knowledge, age, gender, perception of self, etc.; the task at hand; the source and the channel and their degree of accessibility and usability; and the relationship that the seeker shares with the source. Yet researchers have yet to agree on what context really means. While there have been various research studies incorporating context, and biennial conferences on context in information behavior, there lacks a clear definition of what context is, what its boundaries are, and what elements and variables comprise context. In this book, we look at the many definitions of and the theoretical and empirical studies on context, and I attempt to map the conceptual space of context in information behavior. I propose theoretical frameworks to map the boundaries, elements, and variables of context. I then discuss how to incorporate these frameworks and variables in the design of research studies on context. We then arrive at a unified definition of context. This book should provide designers of search systems a better understanding of context as they seek to meet the needs and demands of information seekers. It will be an important resource for researchers in Library and Information Science, especially doctoral students looking for one resource that covers an exhaustive range of the most current literature related to context, the best selection of classics, and a synthesis of these into theoretical frameworks and a unified definition. The book should help to move forward research in the field by clarifying the elements, variables, and views that are pertinent. In particular, the list of elements to be considered, and the variables associated with each element will be extremely useful to researchers wanting to include the influences of context in their studies.
Policy-based data management enables the creation of community-specific collections. Every collection is created for a purpose. The purpose defines the set of properties that will be associated with the collection. The properties are enforced by management policies that control the execution of procedures that are applied whenever data are ingested or accessed. The procedures generate state information that defines the outcome of enforcing the management policy. The state information can be queried to validate assessment criteria and verify that the required collection properties have been conserved. The integrated Rule-Oriented Data System implements the data management framework required to support policy-based data management. Policies are turned into computer actionable Rules. Procedures are composed from a microservice-oriented architecture. The result is a highly extensible and tunable system that can enforce management policies, automate administrative tasks, and periodically validate assessment criteria. iRODS 4.0+ represents a major effort to analyze, harden, and package iRODS for sustainability, modularization, security, and testability. This has led to a fairly significant refactorization of much of the underlying codebase. iRODS has been modularized whereby existing iRODS 3.x functionality has been replaced and provided by small, interoperable plugins. The core is designed to be as immutable as possible and serve as a bus for handling the internal logic of the business of iRODS. Seven major interfaces have been exposed by the core and allow extensibility and separation of functionality into plugins.
This book will contemplate the nature of our participatory digital media culture, the diversity of actors involved, and how the role of the news librarian has evolved—from information gatekeeper to knowledge networker, collaborating and facilitating content creation with print and broadcast media professionals. It will explore how information professionals assist in the newsroom, drawing on the author's experiential knowledge as an embedded research librarian in the media industry. The past decade has seen significant changes in the media landscape. Large media outlets have traditionally controlled news and information flows, with everyone obtaining news via these dominant channels. In the digital world, the nature of what constitutes news has changed in fundamental ways. Social media and technologies such as crowdsourcing now play a pivotal role in how broadcast media connects and engages with their audiences.The book will focus on news reporting in the age of social media, examining the significance of verification and evaluating social media content from a journalistic and Information Science (IS) perspective. With such an emphasis on using social media for research, it is imperative to have mechanisms in place to make sure that information is authoritative before passing it on to a client as correct and accurate. Technology innovation and the 24/7 news cycle are driving forces compelling information professionals and journalists alike to adapt and learn new skills. The shift to tablets and smartphones for communication, news, and entertainment has dramatically changed the library and media landscape. Finally, we will consider automated journalism and examine future roles for news library professionals in the age of digital social media.
Near Field Communication is a radio frequency technology that allows objects, such as mobile phones, computers, tags, or posters, to exchange information wirelessly across a small distance. This report on the progress of Near Field Communication reviews the features and functionality of the technology and summarizes the broad spectrum of its current and anticipated applications. We explore the development of NFC technology in recent years, introduce the major stakeholders in the NFC ecosystem, and project its movement toward mainstream adoption. Several examples of early implementation of NFC in libraries are highlighted, primarily involving the use of NFC to enhance discovery by linking books or other physical objects with digital information about library resources, but also including applications of NFC to collection management and self-checkout. Future uses of NFC in libraries, such as smart posters or other enhanced outreach, are envisioned as well as the potential for the touch paradigm and Internet of things to transform the ways in which library users interact with the information environment. Conscious of the privacy and security of our patrons, we also address continuing concerns related to NFC technology and its expected applications, recommending caution, awareness, and education as immediate next steps for librarians.
Librarians have been providing support to researchers for many years, typically with a focus on responding to researchers’ needs for access to the existing literature. However, librarians’ skills and expertise make them uniquely suited to provide a wide range of assistance to researchers across the entire research process, from conception of the research question to archiving of collected data at the project’s conclusion. In response to increasingly stringent demands on researchers to share their data, and as computationally intensive and primarily data-driven scientific methods begin to take the place of traditional lab-based research, the “research informationist” has emerged as a new information profession. With a background in library and information sciences, as well as expertise in best practices for data management, grant funder policies, and informatics tools, the research informationist is capable of implementing a full suite of research support services. This book will discuss how the research informationist role has developed out of the previously established clinical informationist model and how it expands on the model of embedded librarianship. The book will also examine core competencies for the successful research informationist and the training and preparation necessary for students in library and information sciences programs, as well as currently practicing librarians. Finally, this book will consider how research informationists can form collaborative partnerships with research teams and build their services outside the walls of the library, citing practical examples of the types of support research informationists can offer.
This book covers the concept of the Semantic Web—what it is, the components that comprise it, including Linked Data, and the various ways that libraries are engaged in contributing to its development in making library resources and services ever more accessible to end-users.
This is the second book based on the 5S (Societies, Scenarios, Spaces, Structures, Streams) approach to digital libraries (DLs). Leveraging the first volume, on Theoretical Foundations, we focus on the key issues of evaluation and integration. These cross-cutting issues serve as a bridge for those interested in DLs, connecting the introduction and formal discussion in the first book, with the coverage of key technologies in the third book, and of illustrative applications in the fourth book. These two topics have central importance in the DL field, allowing it to be treated scientifically as well as practically. In the scholarly world, we only really understand something if we know how to measure and evaluate it. In the Internet era of distributed information systems, we only can be practical at scale if we integrate across both systems and their associated content. Evaluation of DLs must take place atmultiple levels,so we can address the different entities and their associated measures. Thus, for digital objects, we assess accessibility, pertinence, preservability, relevance, significance, similarity, and timeliness. Other measures are specific to higher-level constructs like metadata, collections, catalogs, repositories, and services.We tie these together through a case study of the 5SQual tool, which we designed and implemented to perform an automatic quantitative evaluation of DLs. Thus, across the Information Life Cycle, we describe metrics and software useful to assess the quality of DLs, and demonstrate utility with regard to representative application areas: archaeology and education. Though integration has been a challenge since the earliest work on DLs, we provide the first comprehensive 5S-based formal description of the DL integration problem, cast in the context of related work. Since archaeology is a fundamentally distributed enterprise, we describe ETANADL, for integrating Near Eastern Archeology sites and information. Thus, we show how 5S-based modeling can lead to integrated services and content. While the first book adopts a minimalist and formal approach to DLs, and provides a systematic and functional method to design and implement DL exploring services, here we broaden to practical DLs with richer metamodels, demonstrating the power of 5S for integration and evaluation.
Dynamic Fair Dealing argues that only a dynamic, flexible, and equitable approach to cultural ownership can accommodate the astonishing range of ways that we create, circulate, manage, attribute, and make use of digital cultural objects.
The Canadian legal tradition strives to balance the rights of copyright holders with public needs to engage with copyright protected material, but there is now a substantial gap between what people actually do with cultural forms and how the law understands those practices. Digital technologies continue to shape new forms of cultural production, circulation, and distribution that challenge both the practicality and the desirability of Canada's fair dealing provisions.
Dynamic Fair Dealing presents a range of insightful and provocative essays that rethink our relationship to Canadian fair dealing policy. With contributions from scholars, activists, and artists from across disciplines, professions, and creative practices, this book explores the extent to which copyright has expanded into every facet of society and reveals how our capacities to actually deal fairly with cultural goods has suffered in the process. In order to drive conversations about the cultural worlds Canadians imagine, and the policy reforms we need to realize these visions, we need Dynamic Fair Dealing.
The 1990s provided many challenges for Canadian academic library managers. Financial cutbacks at the federal and provincial levels quickly trickled down to universities and their libraries, and administrators were forced to learn how to manage with shrinking budgets.
Ethel Auster and Shauna Taylor's Downsizing in Academic Libraries is a comprehensive study of the trials faced by Canadian academic libraries in the 1990s. The authors surveyed opinions from over 1100 librarians from across the country. Based on these surveys, they describe how downsizing was implemented, its impact on programs and services, organizational climate, and employees, and the legacy of downsizing on user services and program delivery. Their study also includes a statistical portrait of library expenditures, holdings, and staffing levels set against trends in enrolment for the period 198283 to 1997 98.
Downsizing in Academic Libraries will be of interest to policy makers in government, universities, and libraries; to managers and staffs of academic libraries; to researchers, teachers, and students of organizational strategies, processes, and behaviour, and library and information studies; and to all stakeholders of academic libraries who are interested in what has taken place over the past decade as a result of downsizing in Canadian academic research libraries.
Is disseminating information the main purpose of scholarly scientific literature? Recent work in science studies signals a shift of emphasis from conceptual to material sources, from thinking to doing, and from representing the world to intervening in it. Scientific knowledge production is no longer seen as a process of seeking, collecting, organizing, and processing abstract elements, but instead one of assembling the many different material 'bits and pieces' of scientific culture in order to make things work.
In Deflating Information, Bernd Frohmann draws on recent work in the social studies of science, finding the most significant material in the coordination of research work, the stabilization of matters of fact, and the manufacture of objectivity. Arguing for a 'deflationary' account of information, Frohmann challenges the central concept of information studies, thereby laying a foundation for a documentalist approach to emerging issues in the field.
Beasley's Guide to Library Research offers straightforward help in navigating the complex labyrinth of library research. Suitable for novice and experienced researcher alike, this revised classic is an invaluable tool for locating and using materials from research libraries anywhere in the world.
Written and organized for easy access, the reader is guided step-by-step through library rules and methods of operation, the effective use of microfilms and various cataloguing systems, and the location of materials using bibliographies, reference books, and periodical indices. Also covered are the most modern forms of research, including computer databases, inter-library loan systems, and online computer searches.
Whether the reader is a student, teacher, writer, librarian or business person, Beasley's Guide to Library Research provides the essential information that enables all library users to make the most of their research time.
Anyone who has heard of chiasmus is likely to think of it as no more than a piece of rhetorical playfulness, at times challenging, though useful for supplying a memorable sententious note or for performing a pirouette of syntax and thought. Going beyond traditional rhetoric, this volume is concerned with the possibility of using the figure of chiasmus to model a broad array of phenomena, from human relations to artistic creation. In the process, it provides the first book-length study not of chiasmus, the rhetorical figure, but of chiastic thought. The contributors are concerned with chiastic inversion and its place in social interactions, cultural creation, and more generally human thought and experience.They explore from a variety of angles what the unsettling logic of chiasmus (from the Greek meaning “cross-wise”), has to tell us about the world, human relations, cultural patterns, psychology, and artistic and poetic creation.
Dealing with some of the major themes in film narratives, this book draws on the theories of French psychoanalyst Julia Kristeva. It looks at how narratives have changed over time, and considers the sources of our variable reactions to themes and representations of horror, strangers, and love.
In addition to a selection of contemporary mainstream films, the major films for analysis are New Zealand “New Wave” films such as Alison Maclean’s Kitchen Sink and Crush; Vincent Ward’s Vigil; and Jane Campion’s Sweety, An Angel at My Table, and The Piano.
As an important contribution to debates on property theory and the role of law in creating, disputing, defining and refining property rights, this volume provides new theoretical material on property systems, as well as new empirically grounded case studies of the dynamics of property transformations. The property claimants discussed in these papers represent a diverse range of actors, including post-socialist states and their citizens, those receiving restitution for past property losses in Africa, Southeast Asia and in eastern Europe, collectives, corporate and individual actors. The volume thus provides a comprehensive anthropological analysis not only of property structures and ideologies, but also of property (and its politics) in action.
Die �ffnung der Netzsektoren Telekommunikation, Elektrizit�t, Luftverkehr, Eisenbahn und Nahverkehr f�r den Wettbewerb erfordert die Neubestimmung von Art und Umfang staatlicher Eingriffe in das Marktgeschehen. Aufbauend auf der theoretischen Analyse zentraler Fragen der Regulierungspraxis bietet das Buch mit der konsequenten Anwendung des disaggregierten Regulierungsansatzes auf die jeweils sektorspezifischen Problemstellungen eine Darlegung des jeweiligen Regulierungsbedarfs und eine fundierte Er�rterung aktueller Probleme. Der einheitliche Analyserahmen verdeutlicht dem Leser Parallelen und Unterschiede zwischen den Sektoren und erleichtert eine eigenst�ndige Auseinandersetzung mit aktuellen wettbewerbspolitischen Fragestellungen. Mit einer Reihe von Aktualisierungen und Erg�nzungen wird der Tatsache Rechnung getragen, dass die Markt�ffnung in den Netzsektoren durchaus kein abgeschlossener Prozess ist.