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This book introduces zero-effort technologies (ZETs), an emerging class of technologies that require little or no effort from the people who use them. ZETs use advanced computing techniques, such as computer vision, sensor fusion, decision-making and planning, machine learning, and the Internet of Things to autonomously perform the collection, analysis, and application of data about the user and/or his/her context. This book begins with an overview of ZETs, then presents concepts related to their development, including pervasive intelligent technologies and environments, design principles, and considerations regarding use. The book discusses select examples of the latest in ZET development before concluding with thoughts regarding future directions of the field.
This is the first book on X and Y chromosomal disorders to address these common but rarely diagnosed conditions. This book seeks to present the latest in research and clinical care addressing neuroimaging, the interaction between hormones, brain development, and neurodevelopmental progression. This book will primarily focus on 47, XXY (Klinefelter syndrome, or KS), 47, XYY (Jacobs' syndrome), and 47, XXX (Triple X). More variant disorders such as 48, XXXX, 48, XXXY and 49, XXXXY will be discussed. Topics of interest include neurological functioning, neuroimaging, social language, and the evolving perspectives of these XY chromosomal disorders. The effects of testosterone supplementation in males with 47, XXY will also be examined.
Increasingly, teams are working together when they are not in the same location, even though there are many challenges to doing so successfully. Here we review the latest insights into these matters, guided by a framework that we have developed during two decades of research on this topic. This framework organizes a series of factors that we have found to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful distributed collaborations. We then review the kinds of technology options that are available today, focusing more on types of technologies rather than specific instances. We describe a database of geographically distributed projects we have studied and introduce the Collaboration Success Wizard, an online tool for assessing past, present, or planned distributed collaborations. We close with a set of recommendations for individuals, managers, and those higher in the organizations who wish to support distance work. Table of Contents: The Changing Landscape / Types of Distributed Collaborations / What It Means to Be Successful / Overview of Factors that Lead to Success / The Nature of the Work / Common Ground / Collaboration Readiness / Organization and Management / Collaboration Technologies and Their Use / The Science of Collaboratories Database / The Collaboration Success Wizard / Summary and Recommendations / References / Author Biography
Global engineering offers the seductive image of engineers figuring out how to optimize work through collaboration and mobility. Its biggest challenge to engineers, however, is more fundamental and difficult: to better understand what they know and value qua engineers and why. This volume reports an experimental effort to help sixteen engineering educators produce personal geographies describing what led them to make risky career commitments to international and global engineering education. The contents of their diverse trajectories stand out in extending far beyond the narrower image of producing globally-competent engineers. Their personal geographies repeatedly highlight experiences of incongruence beyond home countries that provoked them to see themselves and understand their knowledge differently. The experiences were sufficiently profound to motivate them to design educational experiences that could challenge engineering students in similar ways.
For nine engineers, gaining new international knowledge challenged assumptions that engineering work and life are limited to purely technical practices, compelling explicit attention to broader value commitments. For five non-engineers and two hybrids, gaining new international knowledge fueled ambitions to help engineering students better recognize and critically examine the broader value commitments in their work.
A background chapter examines the historical emergence of international engineering education in the United States, and an epilogue explores what it might take to integrate practices of critical self-analysis more systematically in the education and training of engineers. Two appendices and two online supplements describe the unique research process that generated these personal geographies, especially the workshop at the U.S. National Academy of Engineering in which authors were prohibited from participating in discussions of their manuscripts.
In recent years there has been an increasing demand for research evaluation within universities and other research-based organisations. In parallel, there has been an increasing recognition that traditional citation-based indicators are not able to reflect the societal impacts of research and are slow to appear. This has led to the creation of new indicators for different types of research impact as well as timelier indicators, mainly derived from the Web. These indicators have been called altmetrics, webometrics or just web metrics. This book describes and evaluates a range of web indicators for aspects of societal or scholarly impact, discusses the theory and practice of using and evaluating web indicators for research assessment and outlines practical strategies for obtaining many web indicators. In addition to describing impact indicators for traditional scholarly outputs, such as journal articles and monographs, it also covers indicators for videos, datasets, software and other non-standard scholarly outputs. The book describes strategies to analyse web indicators for individual publications as well as to compare the impacts of groups of publications. The practical part of the book includes descriptions of how to use the free software Webometric Analyst to gather and analyse web data. This book is written for information science undergraduate and Master’s students that are learning about alternative indicators or scientometrics as well as Ph.D. students and other researchers and practitioners using indicators to help assess research impact or to study scholarly communication.
Waves are everywhere in our daily life. We all experience sound and light with our ears and eyes, we use microwaves to cook, and radio waves are transmitted from and are received by our cell phones. These are just some examples of waves that carry energy from point A to B. However, we may not know details of the physics underlying all these waves. It is important to understand the mechanisms that generate wave dynamics for a given system. It is not straightforward to explain how an electromagnetic ï¬eld becomes oscillatory and propagates as a wave. Waves sometimes represent the underlying dynamics of observed phenomena at a fundamental level of physics.
This book is designed to explore these mechanisms by discussing various aspects of wave dynamics from as many perspectives as possible. The target audiences are undergraduate students majoring in engineering science and graduate students majoring in general engineering. Going beyond the typical approach to learning science, this book discusses wave dynamics and related concepts at various levels of mathematics and physics, sometimes touching on profound physics behind them. This book was written to help readers learn wave dynamics on a deep physical level, and develop innovative ideas in their own fields.
The world of scholarship is changing rapidly. Increasing demands on scholars, the growing size and complexity of questions and problems to be addressed, and advances in sophistication of data collection, analysis, and presentation require new approaches to scholarship. A ubiquitous, open information infrastructure for scholarship, consisting of linked open data, open-source software tools, and a community committed to sustainability are emerging to meet the needs of scholars today. This book provides an introduction to VIVO, http://vivoweb.org/, a tool for representing information about research and researchers -- their scholarly works, research interests, and organizational relationships. VIVO provides an expressive ontology, tools for managing the ontology, and a platform for using the ontology to create and manage linked open data for scholarship and discovery. Begun as a project at Cornell and further developed by an NIH funded consortium, VIVO is now being established as an open-source project with community participation from around the world. By the end of 2012, over 20 countries and 50 organizations will provide information in VIVO format on more than one million researchers and research staff, including publications, research resources, events, funding, courses taught, and other scholarly activity. The rapid growth of VIVO and of VIVO-compatible data sources speaks to the fundamental need to transform scholarship for the 21st century. Table of Contents: Scholarly Networking Needs and Desires / The VIVO Ontology / Implementing VIVO and Filling It with Life / Case Study: University of Colorado at Boulder / Case Study: Weill Cornell Medical College / Extending VIVO / Analyzing and Visualizing VIVO Data / The Future of VIVO: Growing the Community
Visual Astronomy introduces the basics of observational astronomy, a fundamentally limitless opportunity to learn about the universe with your unaided eyes or with tools such as binoculars, telescopes, or cameras. The book explains the essentials of time a
The availability of inexpensive, custom, highly integrated circuits is enabling some very powerful systems that bring together sensors, smart phones, wearables, cloud computing, and other technologies. To design these types of complex systems we are advocating a top-down simulation methodology to identify problems early. This approach enables software development to start prior to expensive chip and hardware development. We call the overall approach virtual design. This book explains why simulation has become important for chip design and provides an introduction to some of the simulation methods used. The audio lifelogging research project demonstrates the virtual design process in practice.
The goals of this book are to:
- explain how silicon design has become more closely involved with system design;
- show how virtual design enables top down design;
- explain the utility of simulation at different abstraction levels;
- show how open source simulation software was used in audio lifelogging.
The target audience for this book are faculty, engineers, and students who are interested in developing digital devices for Internet of Things (IoT) types of products.
This volume presents novel computational models for representing digital humans and their interactions with other virtual characters and meaningful environments. In this context, we describe efficient algorithms to animate, control, and author human-like agents having their own set of unique capabilities, personalities, and desires. We begin with the lowest level of footstep determination to steer agents in collision-free paths. Steering choices are controlled by navigation in complex environments, including multi-domain planning with dynamically changing situations. Virtual agents are given perceptual capabilities analogous to those of real people, including sound perception, multi-sense attention, and understanding of environment semantics which affect their behavior choices. The roles and impacts of individual attributes, such as memory and personality are explored. The animation challenges of integrating a number of simultaneous behavior and movement demands on an agent are addressed through an open source software system. Finally, the creation of stories and narratives with groups of agents subject to planning and environmental constraints culminates the presentation.