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While there are many excellent textbooks and reference books covering the chemistry, physics, rheology, processing, and characterization of polymers, this textbook is the first treatment in one place of the modeling and simulation of polymerization reactions.
This is the very model of a textbook; not only is it single-authored, but also it comes with chapter introductions, chapter summaries, worked examples, exercises, and many references to the literature. In addition, this book will serve as a reference for students, researchers, post-doctoral workers, and polymer scientists both inside and outside of academia.
Courses using the book may be found in departments of polymer engineering & science, chemical engineering, bioengineering, and chemistry.
Die Biotechnologie gilt als eine der Schl�sseltechnologien des 21. Jahrhunderts. Bio- und gentechnische Verfahren k�nnen traditionelle Herstellungsprozesse in der pharmazeutischen Industrie ersetzen und erg�nzen.
Diese Einf�hrung in die Methoden und Grundlagen der biotechnologischen Disziplin bietet einen schnellen und kompakten Einstieg in dieses moderne Fachgebiet der Biotechnologie. Aus der Sicht des biotechnologische arbeitenden Exeperten wird der Leser mit experimentellen Konzepten und Arbeitsmethoden der Praxis vertraut gemacht.
Volume II/29 Molecular Constants Mostly from Microwave, Molecular Beam, and Sub-Doppler Laser Spectroscopy is planned to appear as a series A1, A2, B, C and D1, D2, D3 for the diamagnetic, and E for the paramagnetic linear and polyatomic species, respectively.
Like in the preceding volumes II/24 and II/19, which have appeared in the years around 1999 and 1992, respectively, the diamagnetic substances are arranged in the manner suggested by Hill (Hill's system, 1900), meaning an almost strict alphabetical order. The ionic species are included in the alphabetical arrangement of the neutral ones in each table.
The information is grouped differently in comparison with the previous volumes. All relevant properties of a molecule and the corresponding parameters can be found concentrated under its sum formula in volume II/29. This diminishes the need of turning pages because rotational and related constants, dipole moments, barriers to internal rotation, hyperfine coupling parameters, or Zeeman data were hitherto listed in different tables.
The present subvolume II/29A2 contains data for diatomic diamagnetic molecules.
Scientists and engineers in academic and industrial research experience a strong evolving discipline: Computational Materials Science. This discipline provides materials insights that are not readily achievable by experiments, and it offers the opportunity to design materials and composites ?ab-initio?.
This book presents the methods and the practical use of Computational Materials Science using two distinct examples: the development of optimized or alternative materials for CIGS (Copper-Indium-Gallium-di-Selenide) photovoltaics and the optimization of CIGS thin film solar cells for maximum efficiency.
After a general introduction the theoretical background of the book is illustrated:
The strategies and principles of High Performance Computing (HPC) for materials science are covered and rounded out by a number of examples for highly parallel computing.
Next theory and working principles of solar cells are depicted with emphasis on CIGS.
Finally the theory of the quantum mechanical simulations (Density Functional Theory, Monte Carlo simulations for canonical and grand-canonical ensembles, cluster expansions) and the software used for these purposes are presented.
In the practical section of the book the simulation work for the various functional layers of the CIGS cell is described in detail:
After general electronic structure calculations for the CIGS photo absorber light is shed on the role of the Indium/Gallium distribution as well as on the influence of vacancies in chalcopyrite structures.
Base requirements for the buffer layer are defined and simulation results from a search for alternative (Cadmium-free) buffer compounds are presented. Experimental results for synthesized replacement materials complete this part of the work.
The optimization of the system transparent conductive oxide (TCO) / contact grid for maximum overall cell efficiency is described. The charge transport through TCO/grid is modelled by a Finite Element Method and cell efficiencies are calculated considering ohmic as well as optical losses.
The last section of the book outlines the simulation results implications on the optimization of thin film cell processing. Special emphasis is placed on the influence of process temperatures on film homogeneity and cell efficiency as well as on the requirements for substrate selection. The calculations are validated by experimental results.
Protein Microarrays geh�ren zu den Methoden, die sich in den letzten Jahren rasant entwickelt haben und f�r viele Anwendungen derzeit als das Mittel der Wahl gelten. Hinter dem Begriff Protein Microarrays werden sowohl Peptid Microarrays, Antik�rper Microarrays als auch diverse Protein Microarrays zusammengefasst. Die Herausforderungen reichen dabei von der parallelen Expression und Reinigung von Proteinen oder Peptiden bis zum Immobilisieren, dem Aufbringen der Proben auf modifizierte Oberfl�chen und der sensitiven Detektion von geringsten Mengen an Liganden. Wie dieses Buch zeigt, wurden f�r jeden dieser Bereiche je nach Fragestellung eine Vielzahl an Methoden erarbeitet. Jeder Protein Microarray hat eine gro�e Zahl an Anwendungen. Diese reichen von der funktionellen Charakterisierung von Interaktionen �ber das Identifizieren von Substraten f�r Enzyme bis zu systembiologischen und medizinischen Anwendungen. �
Harald Seitz fertigte seine Dissertation am MPI f�r Molekulare Genetik in Berlin an und hat 2000 an der FU Berlin promoviert. Zur Zeit arbeitet er am Fraunhofer Institut f�r Biomedizinische Technik als Arbeitsgruppenleiter. Seit �ber zehn Jahren befasst er sich mit Protein Microarrays und ist mit allen wesentlichen Aspekten der Herstellung und der Entwicklung von Assays vertraut. In dieser Zeit hat er das Gebiet mit gepr�gt und zu dessen Entwicklung beigetragen.
This book offers a detailed description of the geology, geochemistry and deposit model of key deposits in the Mianning-Dechang REE belt in West Sichuan, one of the most important REE belts in the world and genetically related to the Himalayan carbonatite-alkaline complex, helping readers to understand the ore-forming process of carbonatite-related REE deposits. The carbonatite-related REE deposits provide more than 90% of worldwide LREE resources. Thanks to the deposit model presented here, it can serve as an important guidebook for REE exploration and will be of interest to various members of industry and academia, including those who work in exploration, research and teaching. The methods for inclusion studies and petrochemistry discussed represent the cutting edge of analytical techniques in geology.
The main aim of Renewable Energies is to provide an overview of the environmental impact of the different renewable energy systems, enabling readers to understand the environmental impact of electricity production, through the analysis of different generation sources over their life cycle. This means the book covers the real impact of each source of electrical generation from the extraction of materials to permit completion of the installation (solar panels, wind turbines, etc.), until finally (once the productive lifespan of the facility is over) it is dismantled and its components are sent to a landfill, recycled, reused, etc. This analysis uses the technique of life cycle assessment (LCA), allows the authors to obtain graphically and numerically the different impacts associated with each facility. It permits comparison of the different systems studied, showing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of each one of these systems. Furthermore, these systems of power generation from renewable sources can be compared to traditional systems of electrical power (fossil fuels, hydraulic, nuclear) giving a fairer evaluation, in terms of financial and environmental cost, of each one of these systems.
Dieses Buch bietet neben den mikrobiellen und verfahrenstechnischen Grundlagen des Biogasprozesses ebenso eine umfassende Beschreibung der technischen Elemente. Es ist so konzipiert, dass es sich als Lehr- und Nachschlagewerk eignet. Besonderer Wert wurde auf eine gute didaktische Gestaltung des Werkes gelegt. Mit zahlreichen Kontrollfragen am Ende der Kapitel kann der Leser seinen Lernerfolg leicht kontrollieren.
This book uses the history of cell theory to explore the emergence of biology as a distinct field in its own right—separate from anatomy, physiology, and natural history. It also explores nineteenth- and twentieth-century ideas about heredity and development and the progress that was made at the turn of the century when they began to be studied on their own—leading to new understandings of a variety of biological problems, from evolution to cancer.
Investigating this story will help readers gain an appreciation of the historical development of scientific ideas. It beautifully illustrates that the process of science is not as straightforward as it is usually portrayed. One of the important lessons of this intriguing story is that facts do not necessarily speak for themselves, and observations always need to be interpreted.
This book focuses on the U?Pb ages and Lu?Hf model ages of zircon in a plate tectonics context, providing a geotectonic history of Gondwanan Europe. It is the first comprehensive overview of the application of U?Pb LA-ICP-MS ages and Lu?Hf isotopes of magmatic and detrital zircon for plate tectonic reconstructions and orogenic processes. In this context, zircon provinces are established as the ultimate tool for paleogeographic and plate tectonics reconstructions, and for provenance studies of basin fillings, the latter of which offer valuable archives of orogenic processes through space and time. The primary focus is on zircon data on the Cadomian and Avalonian basement and its Paleozoic overstep sequence in the Alleghenian-Variscan mobile belt. In addition, it examines data from interacting cratons such as Baltica, West Africa, the sub-Sahara region, Arabia, and Laurentia. Lastly, the book provides datasets from parts of the Variscan orogenic belt in Southern and Southeastern Europe, which are today covered by the alpine chain and have become partly affected by plate tectonics of the Paleo- and Neo-Tethys.
This volume will specially discuss different ecohydrological aspects of water- limited environments. Water resource management and the related eco-environmental impacts will be covered. And the other volumes are Water and Ecosystems by Chunmiao Zheng and Paul D. Brooks, Observation and Measurement by Xin Li and Harry Vereecken, Integrated Ecohydrological Modeling by Dawen Yang and Dave Goodrich.
Particular attention is given to engineering mathematics, addressing modeling, analysis, method development, implementation and testing of algorithms, as well as application to actual problems and critical interpretation of the results. The book can be used throughout bachelor programs and parts of masters programs, presenting a comprehensive suite of courses that link formal abstract thinking on the one hand to intuitive model formulation, critical algorithm development and interpretation of results on the other hand. The books contains numerous examples of practical applications from physics, technology, biology and chemistry. It also contains an introduction to Matlab and C for algorithm development and computational analysis.�Software and solutions to selected problems are included.
Using classic thermodynamic principles as the point of departure, this book supplies the tools required to assess the technical viability of energy conversion processes.�A new concept, viz. the exergetic (useful energy) recovery factor is introduced�that measures net fraction of the extracted useful energy with respect to the initial exergy of the energy resource.�With respect to conventional measures, the exergetic recovery factor can be negative, which indicates that more input exergy is required than extracted.�A detailed description of the method will be given by applying it both to fossil fuel based energy resources and renewable energy resources. In addition a simplified procedure is given that gives the non-specialist reader the opportunity to judge both conventional and non-conventional energy resources. The case studies discussed comprise the conventional use of fossil fuel (oil gas and coal) the non-conventional use of fossil fuels (shale gas, underground coal gasification) and non-fossil fuel energy resources like geothermal, solar and wind. The book is an ideal guide for those engaged in the transition from fossil-based fuels to renewable and sustainable energy sources and who want to introduce technically viable new energy extraction technologies, which have a reduced carbon footprint.