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Mathematical Physics
An Introduction
This book is designed as an introduction to the mathematical concepts used to describe fundamental physics principles. Numerous examples and applications enable the reader to master complex mathematical concepts needed to define topics such as relativity, mechanics, and electromagnetics.


• Covers all of the mathematical concepts needed to study physics

• Includes applications in every chapter

• Instructor ancillaries for use as a textbook

Table of Contents:
1. Derivatives and Integrals.
2. Elementary Functions.
3. Functions, limits and series.
4. Vectors.
5. Matrices.
6. Differential Equations (1).
7. Complex Numbers.
8. Differential Equations (2).
9. Multiple Integrals.
10. Partial derivatives.
11. Partial Differential Equations.
12. Fourier Series.
13. Introduction to Vector Calculus.
App A. Prerequisites.
App B. The Greek Alphabet.
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Invasion Biology
Hypotheses and Evidence
There are many hypotheses describing the interactions involved in biological invasions, but it is largely unknown whether they are backed up by empirical evidence. This book fills that gap by developing a tool for assessing research hypotheses and applying it to a number of invasion hypotheses, using the hierarchy-of-hypotheses (HoH) approach, and mapping the connections between theory and evidence. In Part 1, an overview chapter of invasion biology is followed by an introduction to the HoH approach and short chapters by science theorists and philosophers that comment on the approach. Part 2 outlines the invasion hypotheses and their interrelationships. These include biotic resistance and island susceptibility hypotheses, disturbance hypothesis, invasional meltdown hypothesis, enemy release hypothesis, evolution of increased competitive ability and shifting defence hypotheses, tens rule, phenotypic plasticity hypothesis, Darwin's naturalization & limiting similarity hypotheses and the propagule pressure hypothesis. Part 3 suggests future directions for invasion research.

Table of Contents:
Part I: Introduction to invasion biology and the hierarchy-of-hypotheses approach
1: Invasion biology: searching for predictions and prevention, and avoiding lost causes
2: The hierarchy-of-hypotheses approach
3: Hierarchy of hypotheses or hierarchy of predictions? Clarifying key concepts in ecological research
4: Mapping theoretical and evidential landscapes in ecological science: Levins’ virtue trade-off and the hierarchy-of-hypotheses approach
5: A hierarchy of hypotheses or a network of models
6: The hierarchy-of-hypotheses approach updated – a toolbox for structuring and analysing theory, research and evidence

Part II: Hypothesis network and 12 focal hypotheses
7: A network of invasion hypotheses
8: Biotic resistance and island susceptibility hypotheses
9: Disturbance hypothesis
10: Invasional meltdown hypothesis
11: Enemy release hypothesis
12: Evolution of increased competitive ability and shifting defence hypotheses
13: Tens rule
14: Phenotypic plasticity hypothesis
15: Darwin’s naturalisation and limiting similarity hypotheses
16: Propagule pressure hypothesis

Part III: Synthesis and outlook
17: Synthesis
18: Conclusions and outlook
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Science and Solutions for Australia
Australia has the third largest marine estate in the world, extending from the tropics to Antarctica and including vast areas of the Indian, Pacific, and Southern Oceans. As a country, Australia has a good reputation for management of their marine estate, but there is still much to understand about how humans’ actions affect the oceans, including through climate change, fishing, resource extraction, shipping, and recreation and tourism.

Oceans are tremendous resources culturally, socially, and economically, and they are repositories for incredible biodiversity. They provide food and energy and influence weather and climate across the country. Indigenous Australians have had cultural and livelihood relationships with our oceans for thousands of years. Most Australians live within an hour’s drive of the coast and the seaside is a valued recreational destination, as it is for increasing numbers of international tourists. Australia’s oceans affect many activities, and managing them well is vital to the nation.

Oceans: Science and Solutions for Australia summarizes decades of scientific research by CSIRO and other agencies to describe what is known about Australian oceans, how research contributes to their use and management, and how new technologies are changing marine research. It provides engaging and accessible reading for all those interested in Australia’s magnificent marine estate.

Table of Contents:
Foreword by Larry Marshall
List of Contributors
1: Introduction -- Bruce Mapstone
Section 1: Australia’s marine estate
2: Australia’s ocean currents -- Stephen R Rintoul, Ming Feng, Nick J Hardman-Mountford and Eric Raes
3: The living ocean -- Alan Williams, Nicholas Bax and Karen Gowlett-Holmes
4: Geology beneath our oceans -- Joanna M Parr, Andrew Ross
5: The oceans and our climate -- John Church, Wenju Cai, Guojian Wang, and Andrew Lenton
6: The oceans and our lives -- Sean Pascoe, Toni Cannard, Natalie Stoeckl, Ian Cresswell, Samantha Paredes and Amar Doshi
7: The blue economy -- Sean Pascoe, Toni Cannard, Ian Cresswell, Natalie Stoeckl, Amar Doshi and Samantha Paredes
8: Governance of Australian seas and oceans -- Ian Cresswell and Marcus Haward
Section 2: Science and ocean use
9: Fisheries and aquaculture -- David C Smith and Nigel Preston
10: Energy from Australia’s marine estate -- David C Smith, Kenneth Lee and Andrew Ross
11: Coastal development -- Andrew D.L. Steven, Simon Apte, L. Richard Little, Mat Vanderklift
12: Operational oceanography – security, safety, transport, search and rescue -- Peter R Oke and Andreas Schiller
13: Ocean pollution – risks, costs and consequences -- Britta Denise Hardesty, Paula Sobral, Simon Barry and Chris Wilcox
14: Tools and technologies for ocean observation -- Mark Underwood and Andreas Marouchos
15: Managing multiple uses of our oceans -- Beth Fulton, Tony Smith, Keith Sainsbury, Marcus Haward
Section 3: Future oceans science
16: Changes and challenges for future generations -- Éva Plagányi, Peter R Oke, Tatiana Rykova, James Innes
17: Ocean changes to come -- Richard Matear, Alistair Hobday and Matt Chamberlain
18: Future technologies -- Bernadette Sloyan, Pascal Craw, Edward King, Craig Neill, Rudy Kloser, Levente Bodrossy
19: Conclusion -- Bruce Mapstone
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Health Benefits of Green Tea
An Evidence-based Approach
This book provides evidence to support the health-promoting components of green tea. It explores the significance of green tea and its catechins— represented by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)— demonstrating their beneficial effects on diseases, including cancer, obesity, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, hepatitis, and neurodegenerative diseases. The present status of human studies and avenues for future research are discussed. It is written by a team of experts from across the globe and makes significant Japanese findings available to international researchers. It is an essential resource for researchers interested in the biochemistry and pharmacology of green tea and functional foods and beverages.

Table of Contents:
Part 1: Overall Perspective
1: Efficacy of Tea in Human Health
2: Characteristics of Japanese Green Tea
3: Research on Tea and Human Health in China and the Contribution to the Development of Chinese Tea Industry
4: Studies on Japanese Scientists on the Health Effects of Green Tea
5: Health Related Studies of Tea in Africa
6: Efficient Synthesis of Catechin Probe and Its Molecular Dynamics
7: Bioavailability and Biotransformation of Tea polyphenols

Part 2: Anti-Cancer Effects
8: Tea Catechins in Cancer Prevention and Therapy- Molecular Mechanism and Human Relevance
9: Green Tea Catechins for the Prevention of Colorectal Tumorigenesis: from Bench to Bed
10: Green Tea Polyphenol EGCG Sensing Receptor
11: Clinical Trials and New Drug Development

Part 3: Effects on Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Related Diseases
12: Preventive Effects of Obesity by Green Tea and its Components
13: The Effects of Tea Gallolyl Catechins on the Reduction of Body Fat
14: Protective Effects of Green Tea Catechins on Cardio- and Cerebral Vascular Diseases
15: Preventive Effects on Human Obesity
16: Anti-diabetic Effects

Part 4: Other Health Beneficial Effects of Tea Catechins and other Constituents
17: Impact of Green Tea Catechins on Multi-drug-resistant Bacterial Pathogens
18: Effects of Green Tea on Influenza Infection and the Common Cold
19: Immune Regulatory Effect of Green Tea
20: Protective Effects of Catechins on Hepatitis and Liver Fibrosis
21: Effects of Green Tea Catechins on Aging and Dementia
22: Green Tea in the Protection against Neurodegeneration
23: Effect of High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol (Mitochondria Activation Factor) Derived from Black Tea and Oolong Tea on Mitochondria Function
24: Effects of Theanine and Other Ingredients of Tea on Stress and Aging
25: Green Tea and Oral Health
26: Radioprotective Effects of Green Tea
27: Effects of Catechins on Intestinal Flora
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Computational Electrodynamics
A Gauge Approach with Applications in Microelectronics
Computational electrodynamics is a vast research field with a wide variety of tools. In physics, the principle of gauge invariance plays a pivotal role as a guide towards a sensible formulation of the laws of nature as well as for computing the properties of elementary particles using the lattice formulation of gauge theories. However, the gauge principle has played a much less pronounced role in performing computation in classical electrodynamics.

In this work, the author demonstrates that starting from the gauge formulation of electrodynamics using the electromagnetic potentials leads to computational tools that can very well compete with the conventional electromagnetic field-based tools. Once accepting the formulation based on gauge fields, the computational code is very transparent due to the mimetic mapping of the electrodynamic variables on the computational grid. Although the illustrations and applications originate from microelectronic engineering, the method has a much larger range of applicability. Therefore this book will be useful to everyone having interest in computational electrodynamics.

The volume is organized as follows: In part 1, a detailed introduction and overview is presented of the Maxwell equations as well as the derivation of the current and charge densities in different materials. Semiconductors are responding to electromagnetic fields in a non-linear way, and the induced complications are discussed in detail. Part 2, using the gauge potentials, presents the transition of electrodynamics theory to a formulation that can serve as the gateway to computational code. In part 3, a collection of microelectronic device designs demonstrate the feasibility and success of the methods in Part 2. Part 4 focuses on a set of topical themes that brings the reader to the frontier of research in building the simulation tools, using the gauge principle in computational electrodynamics.

Technical topics discussed in the book include:
- Electromagnetic Field Equations
- Constitutive Relations
- Discretization and Numerical Analysis
- Finite Element and Finite Volume Methods
- Design of Integrated Passive Components

Table of Contents:
List of Symbols

PART1: Introduction
The Microscopic Maxwell Equations
The microscopic Maxwell equations in integral and differential form
Conservation laws
Potentials and Fields and the Lagrangian
The scalar and vector potential
Gauge invariance
Lagrangian for an electromagnetic field interacting with charges and currents
The Macroscopic Maxwell Equations
Constitutive equations
Boltzmann transport equation
Currents in metals
Charges in metals
Currents in semiconductors
Dielectric and Magnetic media
Wave Guides and Transmission Lines
Transmission line theory
Classical Ghosts Fields
Energy Calculations and the Poynting Vector
The Geometry of Electrodynamics
Integral Theorems
Vector identities

PART 2: The Finite Difference Method
The Finite Element Method
The Finite Volume Method and Finite Surface Method
Finite Volume Method and the Transient Regime

PART 3: Simple Test Cases
Evaluation of Coupled Inductors
Coupled Electromagnetic-TCAD Simulation for High Frequencies
EM-TCAD Solving from 0-100 THz
Large Signal Simulation of Integrated Inductors on Semi-Conducting Substrates
Inclusion of Lorentz Force Effects in TCAD Simulations
Self-Induced Magnetic Field Effects, the Lorentz Force and Fast-Transient Phenomena
EM Analysis of ESD Protection for Advanced CMOS Technology
Coupled Electromagnetic-TCAD Simulation for Fast-Transient Systems
A Fast Time-Domain EM-TCAD Coupled Simulation Framework via Matrix Exponential with Stiffness Reduction

PART 4: Surface-Impedance Approximation to Solve RF Design Problems
Using the Ghost Method for Floating Domains in Electromagnetic Field Solvers
Integrating Factors for the Discretized Maxwell-Ampere Equation
Stability Analysis of the Transient Field Solver
Summary of the Numerical Techniques
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Poor People's Energy Outlook 2017
This edition is the second in a new suite of three PPEOs. It takes the Total Energy Access framework developed in previous editions and illustrates how it can be operationalized in terms of planning, energy planning (2016), financing (2017), and delivering at scale (2018).

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Panorama energético de los pobres 2016
¿Qué necesidades energéticas señalan los pobres de los países en desarrollo como las más acuciantes? ¿Iluminación eléctrica? ¿Cocinas no contaminantes y modernas? ¿Energía para los centros de salud? Aprovechando la información obtenida en las exhaustivas consultas realizadas a las comunidades que viven en situación de pobreza energética seleccionadas en Bangladesh, Kenia y Togo, el PPEO 2016 arroja luz sobre las prioridades relativas al acceso a la energía de algunas de las comunidades más pobres y marginadas del mundo, poniendo de relieve la combinación de soluciones energéticas que podría permitirles conseguir un mejor nivel de vida.

En los últimos años, el acceso a la energía ha sido considerado como un factor clave para el desarrollo internacional y, en consecuencia, ha recibido gran atención a nivel global, llegando a ser incluido en los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible del año 2015. Sin embargo, la inmensa mayoría de los programas elaborados hasta la fecha no son adecuados, lo que ha provocado que más dos mil millones de personas no dispongan de acceso a la energía o no cuenten con servicios energéticos apropiados, seguros, fiables y asequibles. Si no hacemos frente a esta situación, las perspectivas para los pobres y de cara a la consecución del acceso universal a la energía para el año 20130 seguirán siendo sombrías.

A fin de abordar esta injusticia, el PPEO 2016 ofrece una estrategia alternativa para la planificación energética nacional que incluye las necesidades y las prioridades manifestadas por las personas que viven en la pobreza energética. El análisis de las implicaciones que tienen esas necesidades y prioridades para el acceso a la energía desde la planificación hasta puesta en práctica de los planes ofrece a los responsables de adoptar decisiones de los países una oportunidad de oro para conseguir los objetivos de acceso a la energía de forma más rápida, económica y sostenible que con los planes y las políticas actuales.

Esta edición, la primera de una nueva serie de tres PPEO, utiliza el sistema de Acceso Total a la Energía que desarrollamos en ediciones anteriores e ilustra cómo ponerlo en práctica desde el punto de vista de la planificación (la presente edición), la financiación (2017) y el suministro a escala (2018).

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Perspectives énergétiques des populations pauvres 2016
Si on donnait la parole aux populations pauvres des pays en développement, quels besoins en matière d’énergie identifieraient-elles comme les plus urgents ? L’éclairage électrique ? Des fourneaux de cuisine propres et modernes ? De l’électricité pour les cliniques médicales ? En s’appuyant sur une consultation approfondie d’une sélection de communautés pauvres en énergie au Bangladesh, au Kenya et au Togo, le rapport Perspectives Énergétiques des Populations Pauvres 2016 (PPEO) met en lumière les priorités en matière d’accès à l’énergie de communautés parmi les plus pauvres et les plus marginales du monde. Le rapport met en exergue, la combinaison de solutions énergétiques qui pourrait contribuer à l’amélioration de leur niveau de vie.

Ces dernières années, l’accès à l’énergie a été reconnu comme un facteur essentiel du développement international et a, en conséquence, bénéficié d’une large médiatisation au niveau international, jusqu’à être intégré aux Objectifs de Développement Durable du PNUD en 2015. Toutefois, la grande majorité des programmes mis en oeuvre jusqu’à ce jour se sont avérés inadéquats. C’est pourquoi plus de 2 milliards de personnes n’ont toujours aucun accès à l’énergie ou ne bénéficient toujours pas de services énergétiques adaptés, sûrs, fiables et abordables. Si cette situation n’est pas remise en cause, les perspectives resteront moroses pour les populations pauvres et pour les aspirations mondiales à universaliser l’accès à l’énergie d’ici 2030.

Pour remédier à cette injustice, le rapport PEPP 2016 propose un cadre alternatif en matière de planification énergétique nationale, qui intègre les besoins et les priorités exprimés par les populations pauvres en énergie. En explorant la planification de l’accès à l’énergie de manière ascendante, il offre aux décideurs nationaux une occasion inespérée pour atteindre les objectifs nationaux en matière d’accès à l’énergie de façon plus rapide, plus abordable et plus durable qu’en suivant le statu quo.

Cette édition est la première d’un nouvel ensemble de trois rapports PEPP qui s’appuient sur le cadre d’Accès total à l’énergie développé dans les éditions précédentes et illustrent comment celui-ci peut être mis en oeuvre en termes de planification (la présente édition), de financement (2017) et de mise en oeuvre à l’échelle (2018).

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Foundations of Physics
This book is designed as a calculus-based introduction to the concepts of physics. Numerous examples, applications, and figures provide readers with simple explanations. Standard topics include vectors, conservation of energy, Newton’s Laws, momentum, motion, gravity, relativity, waves, fluid mechanics, and more.

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Particle Physics
An Introduction
This book is designed as a brief introduction to the fundamental particles that make up the matter in our universe. Numerous examples, figures, and simple explanations enable general readers and physics students to understand complex concepts related to the universe. Selected topics include atoms, quarks, accelerators, detectors, colliders, string theory, and more.

Table of Contents:
1. A History of Particle Physics.
2. Special Relativity.
3. Quantum Mechanics.
4. Symmetries and Groups.
5. Experimental Particle Physics.
6. Particle Classification.
7. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics.
8. The Dirac Equation.
9. Quantum Electrodynamics.
10. Non-Abelian Gauge Theory and Color.
11. Symmetry Breaking and the Higgs Mechanism.
12. The Standard Model of Particle Physics.
13. Beyond the Standard Model.

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Chemistry in the Marketplace
Chemicals are everywhere. Many are natural and safe, others synthetic and dangerous. Or is it the other way around? Walking through the supermarket, you might ask yourself: should I be eating organic food? Is that anti-wrinkle cream a gimmick? Is it worth buying BPA-free plastics?

This sixth edition of Chemistry in the Marketplace provides fresh explanations, fascinating facts, and funny anecdotes about the serious science in the products we buy and the resources we use. With chapters on the chemistry found in different parts of our home, in the backyard, and in the world around us, Ben Selinger and Russell Barrow explain how things work, where marketing can be deceptive, and what risks you should really be concerned about. This book might even save you some money!

With the inclusion of experiments to help apply the concepts in the text, readers with a general interest in chemistry-related disciplines, high school teachers, and university professors will find this book useful and fun.

Table of Contents:
About the authors

1 Molecular musings
2 Chemistry of health and risk
3 Chemistry of surfaces
4 Chemistry in the laundry
5 Chemistry in the kitchen
6 Chemistry in the dining room
7 Biochemistry of metabolism and sport
8 Chemistry of cosmetics
9 Chemistry in the medicine cabinet
10 Chemistry of plastics and glass
11 Chemistry of fibres, fabrics and other yarns
12 Chemistry in the garden
13 Chemistry of hardware and stationery
14 Chemistry in the swimming pool
15 Chemistry at the beach
16 Biological effects of metals and metalloids
17 Chemistry in the energy sector
18 Chemistry of ionising radiation
19 Experiments

Appendix 1: Nomenclature in chemistry
Appendix 2: Reporting amounts of material (units)
Appendix 3: Prevalence of logarithmic scales
Appendix 4: How much is safe?
Appendix 5: Phase diagrams
Appendix 6: Metal foils
Appendix 7: Metal alloys
Appendix 8: Maillard reaction
Appendix 9: Refractive index
Appendix 10: Glass transition temperature (Tg)
Appendix 11: The entropy game

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Woodland Development
A Long Term Study of Lady Park Wood
Lady Park Wood was set aside as a "natural" reserve for ecological research in 1944, and the trees, shrubs and ground vegetation have been recorded in detail ever since. These 70 years of observations now represent one of the largest and most detailed records in Europe of how a woodland develops under the influence of natural factors. This book is an invaluable read for researchers and professionals in nature conservation, ecological research, and forestry.

Table of Contents:
1. Understanding woodland
2. Lady Park Wood and its history
3. The ecological reserve
4. Recording trees and expressing change
5. The Changing wood
6. Ash - the tree in the spotlight
7. Beech and oak, the major forest trees
8. Limes and wych elm
9. Birch and other short-lived canopy trees
10. Field maple and hazel, the other coppice species
11. Minor trees and shrubs
12. Habitats
13. Species
14. Long-term ecological studies
15. Natural woodland in theory and practice
16. Near-to-nature forestry
17. Re-wilding, remoteness and wilderness
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Solar Energy Handbook
This comprehensive book is an overview of solar energy topics and initiatives. It covers physics review, photovoltaic principles, off-grid and grid-connected systems, solar energy efficiency, and more.

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Alternative Energy Resource Handbook
This book covers the various non-conventional energy systems such as solar energy, wind energy, energy from biomass and biogas, geothermal energy, energy from oceans, and chemical energy sources, and more.

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Mathematical Methods for Physics
Using MATLAB and Maple
This book may be used by students and professionals in physics and engineering that have completed first-year calculus and physics. An introductory chapter reviews algebra, trigonometry, units and complex numbers that are frequently used in physics. Examples using MATLAB and Maple for symbolic and numerical calculations in physics with a variety of plotting features are included in all 16 chapters. The book applies many of mathematical concepts covered in Chapters 1-9 to fundamental physics topics in mechanics, electromagnetics; quantum mechanics and relativity in Chapters 10-16. Companion files are included with MATLAB and Maple worksheets and files, and all of the figures from the text.


• Each chapter includes the mathematical development of the concept with numerous examples

• MATLAB & Maple examples are integrated in each chapter throughout the book

• Applies the mathematical concepts to fundamental physics principles such as relativity, mechanics, electromagnetics, etc.

• Introduces basic MATLAB and Maple commands and programming structures

• Includes companion files with MATLAB and Maple files and worksheets, and all of the figures from the text

Table of Contents:
Table of Contents

1. Fundamentals of Mathematics

2. Vectors Matrix Methods

3. Calculus

4. Vector Calculus

5 Ordinary Differential Equations

6. Special Functions

7. Fourier Series and Integral Transforms

8. Partial Differential Equations

9. Complex Analysis

10. Classical Mechanics

11. Electromagnetics

12. Quantum Mechanics

13. Statistical Mechanics

14. Special Relativity

15. General Relativity

16. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

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Positive Energy Homes
Creating Passive Houses for Better Living
Positive energy homes enable people to live healthy and comfortable lives with energy left over to share. Creating a house you love that produces surplus energy is surprisingly easy with a thorough understanding of how buildings work and careful attention to detail in construction. Positive Energy Homes provides home owners, architects, and builders with an understanding of the principles and technical details of building these houses.

The Passive House standard, with its well-proven track record, forms the basis for creating positive energy homes. This book explores the Passive House "fabric first" approach as well as the science and practicalities of effective ventilation strategies, smart options for heating and cooling, daylight harvesting, and efficient lighting and appliances. Positive Energy Homes offers a guide and inspiration for how positive energy living can be achieved through homes that power themselves and empower their occupants.


* Provides a guide to the elements of a building that influence energy consumption and empowers readers to make informed decisions in economically retrofitting or building a positive energy home

* Delivers an inspirational and achievable vision of the future of sustainable buildings with a holistic understanding of the elements that influence comfort, health and enjoyment in buildings

* Introduces the biology and physics behind great buildings with theory and easy-to-understand examples.

Table of Contents:
1. Creating healthy homes
2. The thermal envelope
3. Fresh air home delivery
4. Hot water
5. Heating and cooling
6. Light, views and connection with the environment
7. Appliances
8. Toolbox
9. Energy generation and storage
10. Certification
11. Positive energy living Index
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Hydrogen in an International Concept
Vulnerabilities of Hydrogen Energy in Emerging Markets
Hydrogen in an International Context: Vulnerabilities of Hydrogen Energy in Emerging Markets describes strategies and developments for hydrogen civilization efforts realised by various stakeholders such as authorities, institutes, research, industry, and individuals, in different countries and at different stages of the development cycle. Through their contributions, the chapter authors in this book propose a new approach to actual and relevant topics of interest, generically called the hydrogen economy and civilization.

Hydrogen vulnerabilities is a topic that includes new challenges that face the hydrogen energy market. Weaknesses for the hydrogen stakeholder are becoming more refined, and it is necessary to be an active and sensitive player to understand these. A prosperous development of hydrogen will require the assimilation of numerous, diverse and unfamiliar contexts. Challenges for hydrogen will not only be in scientific, technical, economical or public acceptance, but challenges also lie in the genesis of this topic and the neglect of some aspects, however marginal, which negatively influence the desired hydrogen developed.

This book informs the reader about the status of hydrogen energy in the international market, and it includes a series of examples and case studies about hydrogen activities in various countries. Thus, due to the synergy of this library of contexts, the reader should be able to reach a level of intuition enabling them to see the strengths and weaknesses of hydrogen.

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Renewable Energy
A Status Quo
It is evident to all that climate change is happening -- the results can be seen in many countries. Floods, freak storms, wind speeds of more than 80 mph, heat waves, droughts, rising sea levels and disappearing glaciers, largely due to excessive use of fossil fuels. Climate change acceleration began slowly in the 1970’s but has now increased beyond our ability to stop it or reduce its impact. Using renewable energy effectively on a large scale will put an end or considerably slow down this process in many parts of the world. This book shows that some countries are making greater efforts than others. Installations of the '70's and '80's were limited to kilowatts while in the 2010’s we speak in terms of megawatts. The cost of most renewable energy systems has been reduced by so much that they have reached parity with fossil fuels, or are even cheaper. The most effective progress has been made in photovoltaic systems, whilst concentrated solar power, biomass, wind energy and hydro-power have greatly improved payback periods too. While much is hoped from the outcome of the December 2015 Paris climate summit, realistically in the past very few nations honored their pledges. A great deal of aid has been given to poor countries which are suffering from climate change, however, the donor nations have failed to restrict their own carbon emissions. Many poor countries feel they are being expected to forgo the industrial benefits which came from the industrial revolution powered by fossil fuels. The book will outline the achievements of renewable energy by the end of 2015 / beginning of 2016.

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Green Energy
Green Energy is becoming an important component for all individuals and governments of the world. According to the Brundtland Commission Report (Our Common Future, 1987) of the United Nations, “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Green Energy is widely considered to be sustainable energy/ re-newable energy that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In the global movement of Green Energy Sustainable Renewable Energy, most of the countries decided to be a part of this movement to save our planet and future generation. This effort is supported by 11 international authors who are experts in their respective fields. The output is this book, Green Energy, comprised of six chapters.

The first chapter discusses how global temperature can be controlled with the help of technology. Chapter Two explains the costs and benefits of green houses. The third chapter discusses biofuels, and the fourth chapter discusses technical feasibility of Renewable Electricity Generation in Nunavut. Chapter Five presents a summary of 15 years of a grass root project experience in partnership with impoverished, remote high altitude communities in the Nepal Himalayas. The last chapter argues that, contrary to popular belief, sustainable sources, in particular solar power, are capable of providing all the energy that Europe needs at reasonable cost.

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Wireless Power Transfer
Nikola Tesla's dream in the early 20th century of a "World Wireless System" led him to build the Wardenclyffe Tower, a prototype base station serving as an emitter for his "World Wireless System." The base station was to supply wireless electrical energy to a distant receiver. This book builds upon that dream and is a result of intensive research in powerline, machine to machine communications, and wireless power transfer globally.

Wireless energy transfer or Witricity (WIreless elecTRICITY) transfers electricity instead of data. The technology is useful in cases where instantaneous or continuous energy is needed but interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. The transfer is made through inductive coupling and electromagnetic radiation. Inductive coupling provides optimum power delivery to a receiver load if both the emitter and the receiver achieve magnetic resonance concurrently. Energy transfer systems mostly use antennas operating in their near field regions. As fossil energy sources are being depleted rapidly worldwide and oil prices soar, solar energy enhanced with wireless power transfer (WPT) has become a reasonable alternative for renewable energy and power harvesting. They are finding use in transportation, electric and hybrid vehicles, very fast trains, and the emerging field of Internet of Things.

Leading experts on the subject wrote this book on wireless energy transfer technology and its applications. The publication introduces and explains the technology in great detail and provides the theory and practice of WPT through the two approaches of coupled mode theory and circuit theory. Both approaches are dependent on resonance techniques. The level of presentation is suitable for design and training. In-depth coverage is provided on near field concepts; coupled-mode theory and models; circuit models of inductive antennas; radiative and inductive wireless power transfer, wireless power relay concepts, optimization techniques for wireless power transfer systems, control of wireless power transfer systems, and wireless charging concepts; and wireless energy transfer applications in electric vehicles, embedded medical systems, and the propagation in human tissues.

Each chapter covers a selected aspect of wireless energy transfer. The authors have gone to great lengths to provide worked examples in order to assist the reader in working through some of the difficult concepts and allow more understanding. The book is an excellent foundation for applying wireless energy transfer technologies in most fields, including transportation, communication, home automation, biomedical systems, and home appliances. It is a recommended read for practitioners and engineers in the power industry, students in universities, and research institutes. Honors and post graduate students in Physics, electrical/electronic engineering, and computer science will find the text easy to read and apply because of the mode of presentation.

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