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This book uses the history of cell theory to explore the emergence of biology as a distinct field in its own right—separate from anatomy, physiology, and natural history. It also explores nineteenth- and twentieth-century ideas about heredity and development and the progress that was made at the turn of the century when they began to be studied on their own—leading to new understandings of a variety of biological problems, from evolution to cancer.
Investigating this story will help readers gain an appreciation of the historical development of scientific ideas. It beautifully illustrates that the process of science is not as straightforward as it is usually portrayed. One of the important lessons of this intriguing story is that facts do not necessarily speak for themselves, and observations always need to be interpreted.
This collection explores strategies of reading space and conflict in Canadian and Québécois literary and cultural performances. How do literary texts and popular cultural performances produce and contest spatial practices? What is the role of the nation, the city, the community, and the individual subject in reproducing space, even during times of global hegemony and neocolonialism? In what ways do marginalized individuals and communities represent, contest, or appropriate spaces through counter-narratives and expressions of culture from below? And how does space itself shape conflict, counter-memory, and culture from below?
Focusing on contestation instead of harmony and consensus, Contested Spaces disturbs the idealized space of Canadian multicultural pluralism to carry literary analysis and cultural studies into spaces often undetected and unforeseen; Contested Spaces exposes geographies of exclusion and difference such as flophouses and slums, shantytowns and urban alleyways, underground spaces and peep shows, inner city urban parks as experienced by minority ethnics, the poor, women, social activists, Indigenous people, and Francophones in Canada. These essays are the product of sustained and high-level collaboration across French and English academic communities in Canada to facilitate theoretical exchange on the topic of space and contestation, to expose geographies of exclusion, and to generate new spaces of hope in the spirit of pioneering work by Henri Lefebvre, Michel Foucault, Michel de Certeau, Doreen Massey, David Harvey, and other more recent theorists of space.
Poor access to care in low- and middle-income countries due to high costs, geographic barriers, and a shortage of trained medical staff, has motivated many organizations to rethink their model of health service delivery. Many of these new models are being developed by private sector actors, including non-profits, such as non-governmental organizations, and for-profits, such as social enterprises. These non-state actors partner extensively, often with public sector organizations. The engagement of the private sector has enormous potential to scale innovation in global health. Understanding how these leading organizations operate and target hard to reach groups may yield key insights to sustainably improve healthcare for all.
Private Sector Entrepreneurship in Global Health includes works by management, medicine, and social science experts who have studied trends in private sector healthcare innovations over the last ten years. It provides a wide range of examples from many regions and health areas and outlines tools to assess the performance of innovative private sector health programs in low- and middle-income countries. The studies reported in this volume explore new marketing and finance models, digital health innovations, and unique organizational processes emerging from the private sector to serve those most in need. Drawing on the analysis of over one thousand organizations engaged in health market innovations, this volume is a valuable resource for researchers and students in management, global health, medicine, development studies, health economics, and anthropology, as well as program managers, social impact investors, funders and policymakers interested in understanding approaches emerging from the private sector in healthcare.
Elizabeth Lorentz was a servant girl in early modern Germany who was tormented by her belief that she was possessed by the Devil, and eventually brought to trial in 1667. The trial grappled with the question of whether Lorentz was a willing accomplice of the Devil or merely suffering from melancholy as a result of her previous sins. To provide readers with historical context, Morton includes several sixteenth- and seventeenth-century documents dealing with demonic possession and spiritual melancholy. The Bedevilment of Elizabeth Lorentz provides excellent insight into the complexities of Protestant attitudes and the circumstances of young women in early modern Europe.
Catastrophic wartime casualties and postwar discomfort with the successes of women who had served in combat roles combined to shatter prewar ideals about what service meant for Soviet masculine identity. The soldier had to be re-imagined and resold to a public that had just emerged from the Second World War, and a younger generation suspicious of state control. In doing so, Soviet military culture wrote women out and attempted to re-establish soldiering as the premier form of masculinity in society.
Rearming Masculinity combines textual and visual analysis, as well as archival research to highlight the multiple narratives that contributed to rebuilding military identities. Each chapter visits a particular site of this reconstruction, including debates about conscription and evasion, appropriate role models for cadets, misogynist military imagery in cartoons, the fraught militarized workplaces of nuclear physicists, and the first cohort of cosmonauts, who represented the completion of the project to rebuild militarized masculinity.
Scholarship on Italian emigration has generally omitted the Julian-Dalmatians, a group of Italians from Istria and Dalmatia, two regions that, in the wake of World War Two, were ceded by Italy to Yugoslavia as part of its war reparations to that country. Though Italians by language culture, and traditions, it seems that this group has been conveniently excised from history. And yet, Julian-Dalmatians constitute an important element in twentieth-century Italian history and represent a unique aspect of both Italian culture and emigration.
This ground-breaking collection of articles from an international team of scholars opens the discussion on these “forgotten Italians” by briefly reviewing the history of their diaspora and then by examining the literary and artistic works they produced as immigrants to Canada. Forgotten Italians offers new insights into such celebrated authors as Diego Bastianutti, Mario Duliani, Caterina Edwards, and Gianni Angelo Grohovaz, as well as visual artists such as Vittorio Fiorucci and Silvia Pecota. Profoundly marked by the experience of being uprooted and forced into exile, by life in refugee camps, and by the encounter with a new culture, first-generation Julian-Dalmatians in Canada used art and writing to come to terms with their anguished situation and to rediscover their cultural roots.
Canadian Women in Medicine is an accessible collection of articles by experienced physicians and researchers exploring how systems, practices, and individuals must change as medicine becomes an increasingly female-dominated profession. As the ratio of practicing physicians’ shifts from predominately male to predominately female, issues such as work hours, caregiving, and doctor-patient relationships will all be affected.
Canada's medical education is based on a system that has always been designed by and for men; this is also true of our healthcare systems, influencing how women practice, what type of medicine they choose to practice, and how they wish to balance their personal lives with their work. With the intent to open a larger conversation, Canadian Women in Medicine reconsiders medical education, health systems, and expectations, in light of the changing face of medicine.
Highlighting the particular experience of women working in the medical profession, editors trace the history of female practitioners, while also providing a perspective on the contemporary struggles women face as they navigate a system that was tailored to the male experience, and is yet to be modified.
Central Europe remains a region of on-going change and continuing significance in the contemporary world. This third, fully revised edition of the Historical Atlas of Central Europe takes into consideration recent changes in the region.The 120 full-color maps, each accompanied by an explanatory text, provide a concise visual survey of political, economic, demographic, cultural, and religious developments from the fall of the Roman Empire in the early fifth century to the present. No less than 19 countries are the subject of this atlas. In terms of today's borders, those countries include Lithuania, Poland, and Belarus in the north; the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary, and Slovakia in the Danubian Basin; and Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania, and Greece in the Balkans. Much attention is also given to areas immediately adjacent to the central European core: historic Prussia, Venetia, western Anatolia, and Ukraine west of the Dnieper River.
Embedded in the text are 48 updated administrative and statistical tables. The value of the Historical Atlas of Central Europe as an authoritative reference tool is further enhanced by an extensive bibliography and a gazetteer of place names—in up to 29 language variants—that appear on the maps and in the text.
The Historical Atlas of Central Europe is an invaluable resource for scholars, students, journalists, and general readers who wish to have a fuller understanding of this critical area, with its many peoples, languages, and continued political upheaval.
Bringing together top scholars in the field, Universality and Social Policy in Canada provides an overview of the universality principle in social welfare. The contributors survey the many contested meanings of universality in relation to specific social programs, to the field of social policy, and, more generally, to the modern welfare state. In addition to universality, the related ideas of universalism and universalization are also discussed.
The book argues that, while universality is a core value undergirding certain areas of state intervention—most notably health care and education—the contributory principle of social insurance and the selectivity principle of income assistance are also highly significant precepts in practice.
With contributions from historians, literary critics, and geographers, Curious Encounters uncovers a rich history of global voyaging, collecting, and scientific exploration in the long eighteenth century. Leaving behind grand narratives of discovery, these essays collectively restore a degree of symmetry and contingency to our understanding of encounters between European and Indigenous people. To do this the essays consider diverse agents of historical change, both human and inanimate: commodities, curiosities, texts, animals, and specimens moved through their own global circuits of knowledge and power. The voyages and collections rediscovered here do not move from a European center to a distant periphery, nor do they position European authorities as the central agents of this early era of globalization. Long distance voyagers from Greenland to the Ottoman Empire crossed paths with French, British, Polynesian, and Spanish travelers across the world, trading objects and knowledge for diverse ends. The dynamic contact zones of these curious encounters include the ice floes of the Arctic, the sociable spaces of the tea table, the hybrid material texts and objects in imperial archives, and the collections belonging to key figures of the Enlightenment, including Sir Hans Sloane and James Petiver.
For whom was the Hebrew Bible written? How much truth does it contain? What, according to the Bible, is the place of men and women in the world? What connection is there between the Bible and morality? In I AM Mark Glouberman supplies new answers to these old questions. He does this by establishing that the foundational scripture of the West is, first and foremost, a philosophical document, not a theological tract, nor yet the religious history of a nation.
The author identifies the Bible’s fundamental principle, the ontological principle of particularity. This principle, he shows, is what makes the Bible the revolutionary text that it is. God’s I AM WHO I AM asserts the principle, of which the Bible’s deity is a personified form. God’s self-identification also points to the real, anthropological, meaning of the ism called monotheism. A portion of Glouberman’s book is devoted to illustrating the Bible’s live relevance in many of the areas where modern philosophers congregate, including moral philosophy, political philosophy, metaphysics, and epistemology.
Isn’t it a bit late in the day for the Bible’s meaning to be revealed? Glouberman says that it’s about time.
Arguing that sound is integral to Virginia Woolf's understanding of literature, Elicia Clements highlights how the sonorous enables Woolf to examine issues of meaning in language and art, elaborate a politics of listening, illuminate rhythmic and performative elements in her fiction, and explore how music itself provides a potential structural model that facilitates the innovation of her method in The Waves.
Woolf's investigation of the exchange between literature and music is thoroughly intermedial: her novels disclose the crevices, convergences, and conflicts that arise when one traverses the intersectionality of these two art forms, revealing, in the process, Woolf's robust materialist feminism. This book focuses, therefore, on the conceptual, aesthetic, and political implications of the musico-literary pairing. Correspondingly, Clements uses a methodology that employs theoretical tools from the disciplines of both literary criticism and musicology, as well as several burgeoning and newly established fields including sound, listening, and performance studies. Ultimately, Clements argues that a wide-ranging combination of these two disciplines produces new ways to study not only literary and musical artifacts but also the methods we employ to analyze them.
Fruit of the Orchard sheds light on how Catherine of Siena served as a visible and widespread representative of English piety becoming a part of the devotional landscape of the period. By analyzing a variety of texts, including monastic and lay, complete and excerpted, shared and private, author Jennifer N. Brown considers how the visionary prophet and author was used to demonstrate orthodoxy, subversion, and heresy.
Tracing the book tradition of Catherine of Siena, as well as investigating the circulation of manuscripts, Brown explores how the various perceptions of the Italian saint were reshaped and understood by an English readership. By examining the practice of devotional reading, she reveals how this sacred exercise changed through a period of increased literacy, the rise of the printing press, and religious turmoil.
The Public Servant’s Guide to Government in Canada is a concise primer on the inner workings of government in Canada. This go-to resource is a useful reference guide for students and scholars, for new and lower-ranking public servants, or for anyone who wants to know more about how government really works. Grounded in experience, the book connects building blocks in political science and public administration to the real-world practice of government in Canada.
Topics range from core concepts and theories to the messy realities of governing, the art of diplomacy, and tips for climbing the career ladder. The writing is accessible and concise, employing infographics, tables, and other helpful means of summarizing the traditionally complex concepts at play in Canadian politics.
Through the Lens of Anthropology is a concise introduction to anthropology that uses the twin themes of food and sustainability to illustrate the connected nature of the discipline’s many subfields. Beautifully illustrated throughout, with over 150 full-color images, figures, feature boxes, and maps, this is an anthropology book with a fresh perspective, a lively narrative, and plenty of popular topics. The new edition enhances the food and sustainability focus and builds a stronger narrative voice with extended examples and case studies. An entirely new section on decolonization, more Indigenous content, and updated material on biological anthropology make the second edition even more relevant for those interested in learning more about the discipline of anthropology.
The Writer’s Gift or the Patron’s Pleasure? introduces a new approach to literary patronage through a reassessment of the medieval paragon of literary sponsorship, Charles V of France. Traditionally celebrated for his book commissions that promoted the vernacular, Charles V also deserves credit for having profoundly altered the literary economy when bypassing the traditional system of acquiring books through gifting to favor the commission. When upturning literary dynamics by soliciting works to satisfy his stated desires, the king triggered a multi-generational literary debate concerned with the effect a work’s status as a solicited or unsolicited text had in determining the value and purpose of the literary enterprise.
Treating first the king's commissioned writers and then canonical French late medieval authors, Deborah L. McGrady argues that continued discussion of these competing literary economies engendered the concept of the “writer’s gift,” which vernacular writers used to claim a distinctive role in society based on their triple gift of knowledge, wisdom, and literary talent.
Despite having enemies in the powerful Spanish religious orders, and being warned of the controversies that would arise, Erasmus published the fourth edition of his New Testament in 1527, resulting in a major crisis for Erasmianism in Spain. This period is marked by a bitter battle between Erasmus and the conservative elements in Spain, involving behind-the-scenes maneuvering, where it was impossible to distinguish friend from foe. Following this tension, a confrontation culminated in the Valladolid conference where enemies of Erasmus were obliged to come forward, and where, following these events, Erasmus himself was forced to publically respond to the charges brought against him.
The three texts in the present volume: An Apologia of Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam Against a Number of Articles Presented by Certain Monks in Spain; The Answer of Desiderius Erasmus to the Pamphlet of a Certain Fever-ridden Individual; and, Letter to Certain Highly Impudent Jackdaws were written in response to his critics.
Not for King or Country tells the story of Edward Cecil-Smith, a dynamic propagandist for the Communist Party of Canada during the Great Depression. Born to missionary parents in China in 1903, Cecil-Smith came to Toronto in 1919 where he joined the Canadian militia and lived a happy life ensconced in the Protestant missionary community of Toronto. He became increasingly interested in radical politics during the 1920s, eventually joining the Communist Party in 1931. Worried by the growing strength of fascism around the world, particularly in China, Germany, Italy, and Spain during the summer of 1936, Cecil-Smith quietly departed Canada and became among the first volunteers to fight for the Republic in the Spanish Civil War. Cecil-Smith was motivated to fight not out of any sense of traditional patriotism (“for king or country”) but out of a sense that the onward march of fascism had to be stopped, and Spain was where the line had to be drawn.
Not for King or Country is the first biography of a Canadian volunteer in the Spanish Civil War, and is also the first book to critically analyse the major battles in which the Canadian and American volunteers fought. Drawing upon declassified RCMP files, records held in the Russian Archives in Moscow, audio recordings of the volunteers, a detailed survey of maps, and battle records, as well as and the Communist Party press, Not for King or Country breaks down the battles and the Party's activities in a way that will be accessible to interested readers and scholars alike.
Universities across North America and beyond are experiencing growing demand for off-campus, experiential learning. Exploring the foundations of what it means to learn out there, Out There Learning is an informed, critical investigation of the pedagogical philosophies and practices involved in short-term, off-campus programs or field courses. Bringing together contributors’ individual research and experience teaching or administering off-campus study programs, Out There Learning examines and challenges common assumptions about pedagogy, place, and personal transformation, while also providing experience-based insights and advice for getting the most out of faculty-led field courses.
Divided into three sections that investigate aspects of pedagogy, ethics of place, and course and program assessment, this collection offers voices from the field highlighting the experiences of faculty members, students, teaching assistants, and community members engaged in every aspect of an off-campus study programs. Several chapters examine study programs in the traditional territories of Indigenous communities and in the Global South. Containing an appendix highlighting some examples of off-campus study programs, Out There Learning offers new pathways for faculty, staff, and college and university administrators interested in enriching the experience of non-traditional avenues of study.
Patriots, Royalists, and Terrorists in the West Indies examines the complex revolutionary struggle in Martinique and Guadeloupe from 1789 to 1802. The arrival of tricolour cockades – a badge symbol of the French Revolution – and news from Paris in 1789 undermined the royal governors’ authority, unleashed bitter conflict between white factions, and encouraged the aspirations of free people of colour to equality and black slaves to freedom.
This book provides a detailed narrative of the shifting political developments, and analyses the roles of planter resentment of metropolitan control, social and racial tensions, and the ambiguity of revolutionary principles in a colonial setting. Recent scholarship has tended to over-emphasize the colonies’ agency, and to accentuate the conflict between masters and slaves, while downplaying metropolitan influences. In contrast, this study seeks to restore the importance of destabilizing political struggles between white factions. It argues that metropolitan news, ideas, language, and political culture: the revolutionary script from France; played a key role in shaping the revolution in the colonies.